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Heredity Test 1

Heredity Test 1 - Question 1 What is the genetic material...

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Question 1: What is the genetic material? Key points: 1. DNA is the genetic material in living beings and viruses 2. There are exceptions in some viruses and unusual agents Griffith Experiment: Transformation o Transforming factor, resulting in a phenotypic change o What is its nature? Avery, Macleod, and McCarty (1940s) Treated mixture of live R & dead S with protease and DNase, only the mice with protease treated mixture died (So DNA was responsible for transformation) Hershey and Chase (1952) Examined nature of genetic material in T2 bacteriophage (virus of a bacteria) Cell Theory: Composed of cells Unit of structure/function Cells come from preexisting cells Life cycle of T2 bacteriophage 1. Virus sits on bacterium 2. Injects genetic material 3. Bacterium produces viral components 4. Components are assembled into viral bodies 5. Viruses leave to repeat the process Hershey Chase Labeled DNA and protein in bacteriophages (separately) i. Allowed them to determine which component was entering the cell, it was DNA DNA STRUCTURE Deoxyribonucleic Acid Hydroxyl: OH Phosphate: PO4 pH scale relative concentration of hydrogen ions Critical parameters of the Genetic Material Information storage Transmission (replication)
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1. nucleotides form the repeating units of DNA 2. nucleotides are linked to form a strand 3. two strands are connected, making a double helix Nucleotide components 1. 5 carbon (pentose) sugar 2. nitrogenous bases (ATCG) 3. Phosphate group Deoxyribose is missing a sugar from a hydroxyl 4 types of nitrogenous bases: Purines: o Guanine (G) o Adenine (A) Each has two rings of carbon/nitrogen Pyrimidines o Cytosine (C) o Thymine (T) Each has one ring of carbon/nitrogen Phosphate group is what makes it Acid Nucleotides link to form strands, with a sugar-phosphate backbone Sugar and phosphate groups are linked by a phosphodiester bond Nucleotide strands Covalently linked together with a phosphodiester bond, 5’ carbon linked to 3’ Strands have directionality o 5’ end=free phosphate o 3’ end= hydroxyl group Nucleotide: sugar, phosphate, base DNA polymerase: enzyme that makes DNA strands Chargaff’s Experiment hypothesis: an analysis of the base composition of DNA in different species may reveal important features of the genetic material studied base content in DNA of a variety of organisms o percentages of ATCG o AT and CG tend to be closely related
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Heredity Test 1 - Question 1 What is the genetic material...

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