Drosophila melanogaster Population Genetics

Drosophila melanogaster Population Genetics - Drosophila...

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Drosophila melanogaster Population Genetics Introduction Evolution is the change in allele frequency of a population over time. There are several mechanisms in which evolution can occur. All of these mechanisms will cause a change in the genetic structure of a population over time. When looking at population genetics you study the genetic sturcutire of populations and factiors that influence changes in the genetic structure. The evolutionary mechanisms in which a population will change are; natural selection, mutations, genetic drift, migration, and non-random mating. Mutations are random errors in the genetic code. Genetic drift are the studiodstaic events leading to the removal of genes. Migration is the movement of individuals into or out of the population. Non- random mating is the sexual selection of mates. Natural selection is the differential reproduction and survival of individuals in a population. Natural selection functions by three characteristics; genetic variation or traits, competition, and fitness. With traits there must be characters for natural selection to work. The triats deal with the phenotype, the outward characteristic, of the organism and must be heritable and variable. Genetic variation must be varied so all organisms are selected for or selected against. There must be pressure on the organisms to compete because if no one is competeing then nothing in the population will change. Fitness is an individuals reproductive contribution to the next generation. If you have individuals that have a fitness difference we would expect natural selection to have an affect on the genetic population. When looking at competition there must be competition for mates and non-random mating because when there is genetic variation and a difference in fitness we can get differential reproduction and survival of individuals. To measure our genetic change in the population we used the Hardy Wienburg model of evolution. Hardy Wineburg has contrasting assumptions of evolution; random mating, no migration, no mutations, no genetic drift, and no natural selection. If these assumptions are met there will be no evolution in a population
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This note was uploaded on 04/27/2008 for the course BIOL 301L taught by Professor Dave during the Spring '08 term at South Carolina.

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Drosophila melanogaster Population Genetics - Drosophila...

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