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F I N A L E X A M | 1Christopher Columbus –oItalian explorer, navigator, and colonizeroCrossed the Atlantic Ocean in 1492oSeeking a trade route to Asia, he landed in the Americas in 1492, opening the New World to European conquest and settlementoCalled the Native Americans Indios, or Indians, because he thought he had reached islands in AsiaLine of Demarcation, 1494 –oTreaty of Tordesillas establishes Line of DemarcationoPope John II established this line giving all lands “discovered or to be discovered”west of the line to Spain and all lands east of the line to PortugalSouthern Colonies –oVirginiaoMarylandoNorth CarolinaoSouth CarolinaoGeorgiaMiddle Colonies –oNew YorkoNew JerseyoPennsylvaniaoDelawareNorthern (New England) Colonies –oMassachusettsoNew HampshireoConnecticutoRhode IslandVirginia –oFirst permanent colony founded in 1607 (Jamestown) – not including Roanoke oNamed after virgin Queen Elizabeth IoRoyal colony because it is owned by the kingPlymouth –o1620 – 1691oPuritans oCame on the Mayflower CompactoIndian Assistance (Squanto)Spoke EnglishTaught them how to grow crops, what to eat, how to fish, etc.Massachusetts –oPuritansoGovernor John WinthropoMassachusetts General Court
F I N A L E X A M | 2oMassachusetts Bay Colony: 1630 – 1691oProvince of Massachusetts Bay: 1691 – 1775Pennsylvania –o“Sylvania” – forestoWilliam Penn – Quaker that founded Pennsylvaniao“Holy Experiment”Refuge for people all over the worldNo slavery; all about equalityFriendly relations with Native AmericansAnne Hutchinson –oExiled from MassachusettsoA midwife and nurse; Puritan spiritual adviseroCame to Boston in 1634 with husband, merchant William Hutchinson, & childrenoAssisted women in childbirth and sickness and became convinced that Bostoniansplaced too much emphasis on good works and not enough on faithoWent outside the accepted role of women by taking a public stand on religionoTried for heresy in 1637Salem Witch Trials –o1691oWitchcraftOrigins & PrecedentReverend Parris’ daughter, Betty, gets sick and the doctor cannot figure out what is wrong with herBetty says she has been cursed by a witch“Typical” Witches – women who were outspoken & did not attend church150 people were accused of being witchesoSalem – People who were accused blamed others and it spiraled out of controlCourt System – Searched bodies for evidence (thought moles/warts were evidence)oThe touch testo3 questions:Are you a witch?Have you seen the devil?Then how did these kids become sick?Great Awakening –oFrom the 1720s to the 1760s, ministers from various denominations called for the renewal of these beliefs in a series of religious revivalsoOriginsResponse to the EnlightenmentConcern from ChurchesLocal Church Revivals (1730s)
F I N A L E X A M | 3Increase Religious Devotion