Chapter 18Main regulatory functions of the endocrine system (maintenance of homeostasis and normal physiological functioning):1) Metabolism: Nutrient utilization and energy production. Glucose breakdown/storage.2) Food intake and digestion: Hunger/fullness. 3) Tissue development4) Helps regulate blood pH, as well as ion levels in the blood5) Water balance through ion levels6) Heart rate and blood pressure change: Helps prepare body for physical activity7) Control of reproductive functions8) Uterine contractions and milk release9) Immune system functionPITUITARY GLAND AND HYPOTHALAMUSThe hypothalamus contributes to regulatory control of the pituitary glandHypothalamus: In the diencephalon of the brain. Major site of nervous system and endocrine system interaction. The hypothalamus is regulated by 1) Hormones2) Sensory information entering the central nervous system. 3) Emotions.Pituitary gland: Secretes seven hormones and twoneurohormones that regulate physiological activities. Locatedinferior to the hypothalamusHypothalamus regulates the secretory activity of the pituitarygland. In fact, the posterior pituitary is an extension of thehypothalamus. Infundibulum: Pituitary stalk. Connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary.Parts of the pituitary gland:1) The posterior pituitary: Hormones released from the posterior pituitary are called neuropeptidesor neurohormones because hormones released from the posterior pituitary are released from neurons rather than endocrine cells.2) Anterior pituitary:Derived from epithelial tissue and releases hormones rather than neurohormones. This is because anterior pituitary release is from endocrine cells rather than neurons.