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U.S History Notes 1.03 Notes In November of 1860, Abraham Lincoln was elected President of the United States without a single electoral vote from the South. A few weeks later, South Carolina seceded from the United States. By the time Lincoln took office in March of 1861, seven southern states had seceded and formed a new country, the Confederate States of America. The Confederacy, as it was called, fired the first shots of the Civil War on April 12, 1861. The attack was on a federal fort, Fort Sumter, located in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina. Union forces surrendered the fort to the Confederates after 34 hours. After the battle, four more southern states seceded. Review the map to see which states seceded from the Union.Battles raged on Union and Confederate soil for four years and touched the lives of the majority of Americans. Over 600,000 Americans were killed in the Civil War; that's more than were lost in WWI, WWII, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War combined. Several disagreements between the North and South led up to this key event in United States history.Economic Causes of WarWhat Were the Economic Causes of the Civil War?By the 1800s, the North and the South had developed two very different ways of life. The North became an industrial center. Railroads and telegraphs united its regions and encouraged trade. Immigrants flocked to the cities to work in the factories, and many of the immigrants feared losing their jobs to slave labor. For this reason, they resisted the expansion of slavery.The Southern economy remained rural and based on agriculture. Rather than railroads, Southerners used rivers to transport their goods. The most important feature of the Southern economy, though, was its reliance on slave labor. In the first half of the 19th century, the main cash crop in the South was cotton, grown on large farms called plantations. Slaves were forced to do the backbreaking labor of planting and harvesting cotton. They also provided the other labor necessary to keep plantations running. Thissource of unpaid labor meant enormous profits for plantation owners. The Anaconda PlanAt the outset of the war, Union General Winfield Scott developed a three-part strategy called the Anaconda Plan, after a snake that suffocates its prey by squeezing it. One part of the plan was to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia. Another part of the plan focused on controlling the Mississippi River, cutting the Confederacy in two. However, what hurt the Southern economy most was the blockade of Southern ports. This prevented the export of cotton and other cash crops, which made it difficult to get money for supplies. The Confederate government had no power to tax. As a result, their army was chronically short of food, weapons, and other crucial supplies. Review the chart to see how resources were divided between the Union and the Confederacy at the start of the war.
TariffsA major economic issue dividing the North and South in the 1800s was tariffs. To protect developing industries in the North, the government created tariffs. These taxes were added to the