Digestive System

Digestive System - Digestive System • OBJECTIVES – Brief overview of parts and pieces – Functional anatomy of system starting at the top and

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Unformatted text preview: Digestive System • OBJECTIVES: – Brief overview of parts and pieces – Functional anatomy of system, starting at the top and going to the bottom (pun intended!) Digestive System DIGESTIVE TRACT DIGESTIVE TRACT Oral Cavity Pharynx Esophagus Stomach Small Intestines Large Intestines Rectum Accessory Organs Accessory Organs Teeth Tongue Salivary glands Liver Gallbladder Pancreas Oral Cavity • Items to note Oral Cavity • Teeth mechanical processing of foods Oral Cavity • Salivary Glands 3. 3. 1. 1. 2. 2. Oral Cavity • Salivary Glands • Saliva – Mucins – Electrolytes – Antibodies – Enzymes • SALIVARY AMYLASE SALIVARY AMYLASE begins digestion (breakdown) of complex carbohyrdates (starches, grains, etc.) • Tongue also makes an enzyme called LINGUAL LIPASE LINGUAL LIPASE begins digestion of triglycerides (fats) * Salivation controlled by nuclei in medulla Esophagus • Muscular tube leading from mouth to stomach • Does not contribute to digestion on its own • Movement of food mass is an ACTIVE process (peristalsis peristalsis ) – waves of muscular contraction Esophagus • Muscular tube leading from mouth to stomach • Does not contribute to digestion on its own • Movement of food mass is an ACTIVE process (peristalsis peristalsis ) – waves of muscular contraction • Entrance into and exit from the esophagus regulated by sphincters (UES and LES/GES) Esophagus • Clinical Issues – Hiatal Hernia – GERD (Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease) G.E.R.D. Esophagus • Clinical Issues Chronic GERD Normal Stomach • Anatomy Stomach • Histology Stomach • In stomach, ingested food combines with secretions of stomach cells to create CHYME CHYME soupy mix of partially digested food Parietal Cells make HCl makes pH of chyme 1.5-2.0 • Kills ingested microorganisms • Denatures proteins (allows them to begin to be digested or chopped up) • Breaks down plant materials and animal connective tissues • Required for activation of stomach enzyme pepsin Chief Cells make PEPSINOGEN, which converts to PEPSIN when released into acidic chyme...
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This note was uploaded on 04/27/2008 for the course BIOL 252 taught by Professor Johnson during the Spring '07 term at UNC.

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Digestive System - Digestive System • OBJECTIVES – Brief overview of parts and pieces – Functional anatomy of system starting at the top and

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