Fluid, Electrolyte, pH Balance

Fluid, Electrolyte, pH Balance - Fluid, Electrolyte, pH...

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Fluid, Electrolyte, pH Balance OBJECTIVES: Review basic concepts needed to understand how our body regulates water and dissolved solutes Discuss intake/output of water and list several common imbalances Describe regulation of several important electrolytes: Sodium Potassium Calcium Discuss how the pH of our body’s fluids and tissues is maintained and list some common disturbances in acid/base balance
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Body Composition
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Basic Concepts Homeostatic mechanisms regulating fluid volume and composition focus on extracellular fluids (tissue fluid and plasma) No receptors directly directly monitor fluid or electrolyte composition - Cannot tell how many liters of water in body - Cannot tell how many grams of sodium, potassium, etc. in body - CAN CAN detect plasma volume (baroreceptors) and osmotic concentration osmotic concentration (hypothalamus) 3. Water only moves by OSMOSIS (not actively transported)
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Basic Concepts Homeostatic mechanisms regulating fluid volume and composition focus on extracellular fluids (tissue fluid and plasma) No receptors directly directly monitor fluid or electrolyte composition - Cannot tell how many liters of water in body - Cannot tell how many grams of sodium, potassium, etc. in body - CAN CAN detect plasma volume plasma volume (baroreceptors) and osmotic concentration osmotic concentration (hypothalamus) - Water only moves by OSMOSIS (not actively transported) - therefore inextricably assoc. w/ electrolytes
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Basic Concepts Homeostatic mechanisms regulating fluid volume and composition focus on extracellular fluids (tissue fluid and plasma) No receptors directly directly monitor fluid or electrolyte composition - Cannot tell how many liters of water in body - Cannot tell how many grams of sodium, potassium, etc. in body - CAN CAN detect plasma volume (baroreceptors) and osmotic concentration osmotic concentration (hypothalamus) - Water only moves by OSMOSIS (not actively transported) - therefore inextricably assoc. w/ electrolytes 8. Water and Electrolyte content/concentration a balance of GAIN (dietary) and LOSS (mostly thru digestive and urinary systems) - If gain exceeds loss, content/concentration increases - If loss exceeds gain, content/concentration decreases
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Water Balance Gain vs. Loss GAIN: GAIN: From drinking 1200 Water in food 1000 From metabolism 300 TOTAL = 2500ml / day (2.5 liters) LOSS: LOSS: Urine 1200 Insensible loss 1150 Water in feces 150 TOTAL = 2500ml / day (2.5 liters)
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Water Balance Regulation of Intake Mainly governed by “thirst” Need for water sensed by OSMORECEPTORS OSMORECEPTORS in hypothalamus These receptors sense solute conc. of plasma and CSF when solute conc. Increases, that is a sign that more water volume is needed Hypothalamus also sensitive to ANGIOTENSIN II (which is result of renin release by juxtaglomerular cells when they detect decr. BP, which would also suggest more water is needed Sends signal to cerebrum to generate “feeling” of thirst DRINKING ENSUES!
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Fluid, Electrolyte, pH Balance - Fluid, Electrolyte, pH...

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