Lab Exercise 2 Organ Systems and Body Cavities - OBJECTIVES...

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Unformatted text preview:OBJECTIVES 1 Name the organ systems and describe the functions of each 2 Name and identify the major organs of each organ system 3 Describe the location of the body cavities and name the organs they contain 4 Describe the structure, location, and function of the serous membranes 5 Identify the abdominopelvic quadrants and regions and the major organs found in each rgan systems are like different depart- ments within a company. Within a company, departments work together to keep the com- pany functioning. Within the body, organ systems work together to keep'the body alive. In this exercise, you will learn the basic function and location of each organ system. A. Overview of Organ Systems and Major Organs An organ system is a group of organs performing a com— mon function. All organ systems cooperate to maintain an optimal environment for body cells through a process . called homeostasis (homeo- 2 same; stasis = standing). Failure to maintain homeostasis results in disorders, dis— ease, and possibly death. 'gflgmtapihgin-m. ' MATERIALS 0 human tor50 models. or charts I male and female human reproductive models or charts I 'paper or'plastic largecnough to outline student torsos, markers articulated skeleton one-gallon zigpgrgel-'plastic bags (1 per group) masking tape rat dissection video in:- the Wiley Student Companion Site '1 Qbsorireth'crorgm in Figures 2.1(a) and (b). Refer to ydfiifi-ftextboals for-alastfltfimgan systems, their function, and. the maid? mitt aflhorgan system. 2 Watt: each labelled urges milder the appropriate organ ' aystcm- Themmay beings" systems that don' thave any organs in these figures, md- some organs may function with more than (91155315131111 13 14 EXERCISE 2 ORGAN SYSTEMS AND BODY CAVJTIES Trachea Aona Lung Hean Diaphragm Liver Large intestine Small intestine Trachea Lung Bronchus Thoracic aorta Esophagus Diaphragm Spleen Stomach Pancreas (posterior to stomach) Kidney Inferior Abdominal aorta vena cava Ureter Urinary bladder (b) Deeper organs FIGURE 2.1 Selected organs and organ systems. Body Systems Cardiovascular System Digestive System Endocrine System lntegumentary System Lymphatic System Muscular System Nervous System Reproductive System Respiratory System Skeletal System Urinary System EXERCISE 2 ORGAN SYSTEMS AND BODY CAVITIES 15 LAB ACTIVITY 1 Identification of Organs on Torso You will be identifying organs from anterior to posterior on a torso model and answering questions concerning their position relative to the organs around them. 1 Identify the following organs on the anterior surface of a torso model. Identify all the organs without removing any organs from the model. - brain 0 trachea 0 heart - lungs - liver - stomach (torso's left side) - small intestine - large intestine (colon) 2 Remove the lungs, heart, liver, and stomach. Locate the gallbladder on the inferior surface of the liver. 3 Identify the following organs on the human torso model or chart: - esophagus ° bronchi (right and left) - inferior vena cava - pancreas (posterior to stomach) ° spleen 4 Remove the small intestine and large intestine. Locate the appendix at the inferior right end of the large intestine. 5 Identify the following organs on the human torso model: ' abdominal aorta - adrenal glands (superior surface of kidneys) - kidneys - ureters ° urinary bladder 6 Identify the female reproductive organs on a female reproductive model or Chart. Observe the position of the urinary bladder relative to the uterus. - ovaries ° uterus - urinary bladder 7 Identify the male reproductive organs on a male repro— ductive model or chart. 0 penis - scrotum (skin covering testes) 0 testes 8 Answer the following questions about the position of each organ on the torso model or Figure 2.1. 1.895% stomach is (l to the small intestine. 2. 9. 10. . superior b. inferior c. medial d. lateral The liver is L2 to the lungs. a. superior (5) inferior c. medial d. lateral . The lungs are ( I to the heart. a. superior b. inferior c. medial @lateral . The trachea is l . to the esophagus. a. medial b. inferior @anterior d. posterior . The pancreas is i '4 to the stomach. a. superior b. anterior @lateral d. posterior . The large intestine is 22 to the stomach. a. superior @inferior c. posterior d. lateral . The stomach is k 2 to the spleen. a. lateral @ medial c. superior d. inferior . The abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava are (2 to the kidneys. (a medial b. lateral c. superior d. inferior The kidneys are &2 to the small intestine. a. anterior @ posterior c. superior d. inferior The urinary bladder is \D to the kidneys. a. posterior and superior @medial and inferior c. medial and superior d. lateral and posterior I LAB ACTIVITY 2 Organ Location 1 Draw the outline o ull-size torso on paper or plastic. 2 Using a marker, draw life-siz ":2" all superficial organs in the appropriate place on paper or plastic torso. I 16 EXERClSE 2 ORGAN SYSTEM-S AND BODY CAVITIES B. Body Cavities Many of the body's organs are found within body cavities. The cranial cavily contains the brain, and it is continuous with the vertebral (vertebra = back) canal that contains the spinal cord. The thoracic cavity is a space enclosed by the ribs, sternum, and vertebral column. This cavity contains three small cavities: the pericardial cavity (peri— = around; —cardia 2 heart) and two pleural cavities (pleura- : side or rib). The pericardial cavity surrounds the heart, and each pleural cavity contains a lung. The mediastinum (media- : middle; —stinum : partition), a central area within the thoracic cavity, extends from the neck to the diaphragm and from the sternum to the vertebral column. The organs located in the mediastinum are the heart, thymus gland, esophagus, trachea, blood vessels, and bronchi. The pleural cavities are located on either side of the mediasti— num. The diaphragm separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity. . - The abdominopelvic cavity consists of two continuous cavities: the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity. The abdominal cavity is the superior portion located between the diaphragm and the brim of the pelvis (hip bones). This cavity contains the stomach, liver, gallbladder, pan— creas, spleen, small intestine, kidneys, appendix, and part of the large intestine. Within the abdominal cavity is the (b) Anterior view (a) Right lateral view FIGURE 2.2 Body cavities. peritoneal cavity. Although most abdominal organs are positioned within the peritoneal cavity, a few organs are retroperitoneal (retr'o— = backward), or located posterior to the peritoneum. These organs are the pancreas, kidneys, adrenal glands, and portions of the large intestine, small intestine, aorta, and inferior vena cava. The pelvic cavity is the inferior portion of the abdominopelvic cavity. The pelvic cavity contains part of the large intestine, rectum, urinary bladder, female reproductive organs (ovaries, uter— ine tubes, uterus, vagina), and male reproductive organs (prostate, and part of ductus deferens). It is important to note that the testes and penis are not located in the pelvic cavity but are located inferior to it. Before Going to Lab 1 Label the major body cavities and the diaphragm on Figure 2.2(a) and (b). _B ACTIVITY 3 Body Cavities 1 Locate the major body cavities on a skeleton and torso model. Identify the organs located in each body cavity. 2 Locate the mediastinum (meed-ee—uh-STINE—um) on a torso model or on Figure 2.1. Identify the organs located within the mediastinum. I 1Mfl - abdominal cavity - cranial cavity . diaphragm 2 ("+wa o pelvrc cavrty 3M - thoracic cavity - vertebral canal 4AMM 5 abate m inctl 6 $9le EXERCISE 2 ORGAN SYSTEMS AND BODY CAVITIES 17 C. Serous Membranes Most of the organs in the ventral body cavity are covered with thin serous '(serizm = any clear, watery fluid) mem- branes, which are' composed of two layers: a visceral layer and a parietal layer. The viscera] (viscera = internal organs) layer covers the organ, whereas the paflga! (paries = vflld) layer attaches to and covers the ventral body wall. These two layers make up one continuous sheet that folds to form a sac. Between the two layers is a poten— tial cavity containing a small amount of serous fluid se— creted by the membranes. The clear, watery serous fluid prevents friction as the organs move within the ventral body cavity. For example, the heart has movement within the thoracic cavity as it fills with and ejects blood. Serous membranes are named for the cavities they sur— round. Thoracic serous membranes include the pleura, which covers the lungs, and the pericardium, which cov- ers the heart. The serous membrane that covers the abdom— inal organs is the peritoneum (peri— = around; teinein = to stretch). Before Going to Lab 1 In Figure 2.3, observe how the serous pericardium folds to form a double layer. 2 Label the two layers of the serous pericardium in Figure 2.3. Pencardial Serous pericardium cavity with serous fluid ' parietal 1 M ' visceral _ 2 VIS era/ FIGURE 2.3 Serous pericardium folds to surround the heart. -AB ACTIVITY 4 Serous Membranes 1 Make a replica or model of a serous membrane with your lab group. ~ Obtain a l-gallon zippered plastic bag. - Push all the air out of the bag and zip the bag. - Have a lab partner place a fist (simulating an organ) on the bottom edge of the bag and push up into the bag so the bag surrounds the fist. - Remove the fist, unzip the bag, and add about 40 to 50 mL of water to the bag. Push out the extra air before rezipping the bag. - Now have the same lab partner place a fist (simulat- ing an organ) on the bottom edge of the bag and pas-h up into the bag so the bag surrounds the fist. 2 Clean up as directed by your instructor. 3 Answer the Discussion Questions with your lab group, DISCUSSION QUESTIONS Serous Membranes 1 In the bag with water, what is the name of the simulated serous membrane layer that is touching the fist (organ)? 2 In the same bag, What is the name of the simulated outer serous membrane layer? 3 What does the water represent? 4 Was it easier to push a fist into the bag with no water or into the bag with water? 5 Based on your observations, does the presence of serous fluid make it easier for organs to move? Explain. D. Organ Systems, Body Cavities. and Serous Membranes in the Rat The organ systems, body cavities, and serous membranes of the rat are similar to those of humans. The rat dissec— tion will allow you to see the relationship of organs to each other, organ location within body cavities, and serous membranes. _AB ACTIVITY 5 Rat Dissection Video Go to the Wiley Student Companion Site to view the rat dissection video. I 18 EXERCISE 2 ORGAN SYSTEMS AND BODY CAVlTIES E. Abdominopelvic Regions and Quadrants Anatomists divide the abdominopelvic cavity into nine regions using two vertical and two horizontal lines in a tic—tac—toe grid so that the location of any organ is simple to describe. The two vertical lines are drawn mid—clavicular (mid—collar bone) and just medial to the nipples, beginning at the diaphragm and extending inferiorly through the pelvic area. The upper horizontal line is drawn across the abdomen, inferior to the ribs and across the inferior portions of the liver and stomach. The lower horizontal line is drawn slightly in— ferior to the superior portion of the pelvic bones. These nine regions from the top right to the lower left are right hypo- chondriac (hypo— = under; chondro- = cattilage),epigastric (epiA = upon; gastro— = stomach),left hypochondriac,right lumbar (lumbar = loin), umbilical, left lumbar, right in- guinal or iliac (inguinal = groin), hypogastric or pubic, and left inguinal or iliac. Clinicians are more apt to divide this cavity into four quadrants that are formed by transverse and sagittal planes running through the umbilicus (navel). These quadrants are useful clinically when one is trying to describe abnormalities or to determine which organ may be the cause of pain. The four quadrants are right upper quad- rant (RUQ), left upper quadrant (LUQ), right lower quadrant (RLQ), and left lower quadrant (LLQ). NOTE: Right and left always refer lo the model's or speci— men it own right and'lefi. Before Going to Lab 1 Draw lines on Figure 2.4(a) separating the abdomino— pelvic cavity into quadrants and label the quadrants. 2 Draw lines on Figure 2.4(b) separating the abdomino— pelvic cavity into regions and label the regions. LAB ACTIVITY 6 Abdominopelvic Quadrants and Regions 1 Using a piece of masking tape; mark the location of the diaphragm on a human torso or on yourself. 2 Using two pieces of masking tape, divide the abdominopel- vic cavity into quadrants on a human torso or on yourself. 3 Using the torso model or your textbook, identify in which abdominopelvic quadrant(s) each organ is pri— marily located. Use the abbreviations RUQ, LUQ, RLQ, and LLQ. R l, a. appendix b. large intestine or colon c. liver d. ovaries e. pancreas '2 U®~ 1'. small intestine (i& ON LLOx. g. spleen i/UCQ h. stomach Ml Using four pieces of masking tape, divide the abdomino— pelvic cavity into regions on a human torso or on yourself. Using the torso model or your textbook, identify in which abdominopelvic region each organ is primarily located. a. appendix R b. gallbladder & 1/ {/61 d. bifurcation of the (L L Q LLQ abdominal aorta Q'ULQ' ( i, UQ e. spleen LU G. we . c. left ovary f. stomach (majority of) Location of umbilicus (a) Quadrants Location of umbilicus (b) Regions FIGURE 2.4 Abdominopelvic cavity. A. Functions and Identification of Organ Systems Identify the organ system by its function as described below. ' ' 1 '. _ I F65 I M . Maintains blood oxygen and carbon dioxide levels N rye/V0— ate" 2. Controls muscles and glands by electrical impulses; helps control homeostasis W 3. Causes movement of bones _ . m I I ' "H Um %aterproof barrier that blocks the entrance of pathogens into the body and prevents the loss of water from the body (1554/ 1 V4 SW! iTranspons- nutrients oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body; / 5*) M 6. Changes food into absorbable nutrients; expels wastes M 7. Regulates composition of blood by eliminating nitrogenous wastes, excess water, and minerals . Uses hormones to control cell function; helps control homeostasis - .. - . .- M 9. Provides framework for the body and protects body organs I = - ' r 4'- WM Produces gametes (sperm and egg) I/Zdfih C/11. Returns fluid to the bloodstream and provides protection against pathogens that have entered the body B. Organ System Identification Identify the correct organ system for the following organs. W1 #70 1. spleen m 6. kidney 2/ .' U'é/ 2. liver WM. uterus . film/01: 3. trachea _W 8. pituitary gland -W/%/ blood vessels M 9. spinal cord W%air W10. testes (2 systems) tertdocmm 19 20 EXERCISE 2 ORGAN SYSTEMS AND BODY CAVITIES W 11. prostate gland m 14. adrenal gland W 12. large intestine m 15. thyroid / ' 13. pancreas (2 systems) (6' (Vi/LL C. Bod! Cavities Identify all the cavities for each organ as follows: cranial (C), vertebral (V), thoracic (T), pleural (PL), pericardial (PC), peritoneal (PT), abdominal (A), or pelvic (P). I 4/.— 1. brain 4— 7. spinal cord M 2. small intestine M, 8. liver fig— 3. heart M 9. kidneys Wig—d 4. lungs M10. uterus W 5. bronchi i 3 /J _ _ 11. urinary bladder M 6. stomach iL 12. ovaries D. Abdominopelvic Quadrants and Regions Name the quadrant(s) (RUQ, LUQ, RLQ, and LLQ) and region(s) (right hypochondriac, epigastric, left'hypochondriac, right lumbar umbilical left lumbar, right inguinal or iliac, hypogastric or pubic, and left inguinal or iliac) that the follow— ing organs predominantly occupy (J_\ QQMO/icLACLCrtfi'D') / ' , r'e 'ic) (Swat liver (Q htflwj (ng'iéappengx V) .Ugiéptzm'rm caged/14¢ LU fléyflachaweté— stomach left kidney Wes/tag? WM . .gmovary .Ql/& @ A "A"??? adder WHUEIUS E. Serous Membranes Write the term the phrase describes. 7 . W1. Attaches the heart to the body cavity (K 0W A 2. Covers the surface of the lungs fl 0 mi. Covers the surface of abdominal organs SQJ'UH § 4/0; .The lubricating liquid in serous cavities ' l I l" ,_. fl." Ll. . 5. Circle the organs that am within th "0+ avity@,lifirr,w spleen, M0145 drenal glan s bdominal aort n erior portions of vena cav stomach fa Using Your Knowledge A. Homeostatic Imbalances of Organ Systems Using your textbook identify the organ system that is homeostatically imbalanced in the following diseases or disorders. fl/l_____ug COL/M l. muscular dystrophy Eik Lfiém 0",! K4 2. hypothyroidism Wmeocaxdial ischemia WC, 4. infectious mononucleosis B. Body Cavities and Serous Membranes Identify all the cavities entered for each procedure, beginning with the largest cavity and ending with the most specific body cavity. Use these abbreviations for the body cavities: abdominal (A), cranial (C), pelvic (P), pericardial (PC), pleural (PL), peritoneal (PT), thoracic (T), and vertebral (V). ./ \ 5. coronary bypass surgery —@'!,__'(E 6. cholecystectomy (gallbladder removal) \/ 7. spinal tap C. Abdominopelvic Quadrants _ 8. A 44-year—old male went to the emergency room complaining of severe pain in his RLQ. The doctor palpated the area and determined that the pain was originating from an organ in that quadrant. Which organ might be involved? (a) liver .appendix (c) gallbladder (d) spleen (e) stomach _ 9. A 23—year—old female went to the doctor with the chief complaint of RLQ pain. Which organ is most likely the cause? (a) adrenal gland Covary (c) gallbladder (d) pancreas (e) kidney 21 22 EXERCISE 2 ORGAN SYSTEMS AND BODY CAVlTlES D. Organ Identification Identify the organs in the color-enhanced medical images in Figure 2.5. 16 17 (a) MRI of head and neck, sagittal view 12 13 14 18 19 20 (b) Radiograph of thorax, anterior view (d) Radiograph o! abdomen and pelvis, anterior view 10 bf/Ajh 14 1Q ML h!" [[2 __ 18 J¢i0€aW ._ . 11 Sflmd CWC/f 15 L/Wg 19 '6"de r I 12 fi— Lam} 16 QUAIL/£07" 20 '_'U_FZ/'('¢_{_S_ - L 13 l; LUKEAg 17 gmfl/ MRS/14¢ FIGURE 2.5 Identification of organs on medical images.