Biology (2016) [OpenStax] - Biology OpenStax Rice...

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Unformatted text preview: Biology OpenStax Rice University 6100 Main Street MS-375 Houston, Texas 77005 To learn more about OpenStax, visit . Individual print copies and bulk orders can be purchased through our website. © 2016 Rice University. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 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We support the creation, sharing, and proliferation of more effective, more affordable educational content by leveraging disruptive technologies, open educational resources, and new models for collaboration between for-profit, nonprofit, and public entities. I WOULDN’T THIS PENS I LOOK BETTER TUDENT E ON A BRAND MEET SC E NEW IPAD QUIREMENT I MINI? URSES. THESE AR EER-REVIEWED TEXTS WR ROFESSIONAL CONTENT EVELOPERS. ADOPT A BO ODAY FOR A TURNKEY LASSROOM SOLUTION OR TO SUIT YOUR TEACHING PPROACH. FREE ONLINE Knowing where our textbooks are used can help us provide better services to students and receive more grant support for future projects. If you’re using an OpenStax textbook, either as required for your course or just as an extra resource, send your course syllabus to [email protected] and you’ll be entered to win an iPad Mini. If you don’t win, don’t worry – we’ll be holding a new contest each semester. Table of Contents Preface to Biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit 1. The Chemistry of Life Chapter 1: The Study of Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1 The Science of Biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Themes and Concepts of Biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 2: The Chemical Foundation of Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1 Atoms, Isotopes, Ions, and Molecules: The Building Blocks . . . . . 2.2 Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Carbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 3: Biological Macromolecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1 Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Carbohydrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 Lipids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 Proteins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 Nucleic Acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit 2. The Cell Chapter 4: Cell Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1 Studying Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 The Endomembrane System and Proteins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5 The Cytoskeleton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6 Connections between Cells and Cellular Activities . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 5: Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes . . . . . . . . . 5.1 Components and Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Passive Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Active Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Bulk Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 6: Metabolism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1 Energy and Metabolism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Potential, Kinetic, Free, and Activation Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 The Laws of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5 Enzymes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 7: Cellular Respiration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1 Energy in Living Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Glycolysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4 Oxidative Phosphorylation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5 Metabolism without Oxygen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.6 Connections of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Lipid Metabolic Pathways 7.7 Regulation of Cellular Respiration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 8: Photosynthesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 The Light-Dependent Reactions of Photosynthesis . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 Using Light Energy to Make Organic Molecules . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 9: Cell Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1 Signaling Molecules and Cellular Receptors . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2 Propagation of the Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3 Response to the Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4 Signaling in Single-Celled Organisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 10: Cell Reproduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1 Cell Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2 The Cell Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4 Cancer and the Cell Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.5 Prokaryotic Cell Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . 7 17 33 34 46 53 65 66 67 76 83 92 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 103 106 109 117 122 126 135 136 143 151 155 165 166 169 174 177 180 191 192 196 198 201 205 208 210 219 219 224 231 241 242 251 255 258 269 269 273 279 285 287 Unit 3. Genetics Chapter 11: Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1 The Process of Meiosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2 Sexual Reproduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 12: Mendel's Experiments and Heredity . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1 Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability . . . . . . . 12.2 Characteristics and Traits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.3 Laws of Inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 13: Modern Understandings of Inheritance . . . . . . . . . . 13.1 Chromosomal Theory and Genetic Linkage . . . . . . . . . . . 13.2 Chromosomal Basis of Inherited Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 14: DNA Structure and Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.1 Historical Basis of Modern Understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.2 DNA Structure and Sequencing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.3 Basics of DNA Replication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.4 DNA Replication in Prokaryotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.5 DNA Replication in Eukaryotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.6 DNA Repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 15: Genes and Proteins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.1 The Genetic Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.2 Prokaryotic Transcription . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.3 Eukaryotic Transcription . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.4 RNA Processing in Eukaryotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.5 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 16: Gene Expression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.1 Regulation of Gene Expression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.3 Eukaryotic Epigenetic Gene Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.4 Eukaryotic Transcription Gene Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.5 Eukaryotic Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation . . . . . . . . 16.6 Eukaryotic Translational and Post-translational Gene Regulation 16.7 Cancer and Gene Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 17: Biotechnology and Genomics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.1 Biotechnology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.2 Mapping Genomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.4 Applying Genomics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.5 Genomics and Proteomics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit 4. Evolutionary Processes Chapter 18: Evolution and the Origin of Species . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.1 Understanding Evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.2 Formation of New Species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.3 Reconnection and Rates of Speciation . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 19: The Evolution of Populations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.1 Population Evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.2 Population Genetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.3 Adaptive Evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 20: Phylogenies and the History of Life . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.1 Organizing Life on Earth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.2 Determining Evolutionary Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.3 Perspectives on the Phylogenetic Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit 5. Biological Diversity Chapter 21: Viruses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.1 Viral Evolution, Morphology, and Classification . . . . . . . . . 21.2 Virus Infections and Hosts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.3 Prevention and Treatment of Viral Infections . . . . . . . . . . 21.4 Other Acellular Entities: Prions and Viroids . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 22: Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.1 Prokaryotic Diversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 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Chapter 23: Protists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.1 Eukaryotic Origins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.2 Characteristics of Protists . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.3 Groups of Protists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.4 Ecology of Protists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 24: Fungi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24.1 Characteristics of Fungi . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24.2 Classifications of Fungi . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24.3 Ecology of Fungi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24.4 Fungal Parasites and Pathogens . . . . . . . . 24.5 Importance of Fungi in Human Life . . . . . . . Chapter 25: Seedless Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25.1 Early Plant Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25.2 Green Algae: Precursors of Land Plants . . . . . 25.3 Bryophytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25.4 Seedless Vascular Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 26: Seed Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26.1 Evolution of Seed Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26.2 Gymnosperms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26.3 Angiosperms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26.4 The Role of Seed Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 27: Introduction to Animal Diversity . . . . . . 27.1 Features of the Animal Kingdom . . . . . . . . . 27.2 Features Used to Classify Animals . . . . . . . 27.3 Animal Phylogeny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27.4 The Evolutionary History of the Animal Kingdom Chapter 28: Invertebrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28.1 Phylum Porifera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28.2 Phylum Cnidaria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28.3 Superphylum Lophotrochozoa . . . . . . . . . . 28.4 Superphylum Ecdysozoa . . . . . . . . . . . . 28.5 Superphylum Deuterostomia . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 29: Vertebrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29.1 Chordates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29.2 Fishes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29.3 Amphibians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29.4 Reptiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29.5 Birds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29.6 Mammals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29.7 The Evolution of Primates . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit 6. Plant Structure and Function Chapter 30: Plant Form and Physiology . . . . . . . . . 30.1 The Plant Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30.2 Stems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30.3 Roots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30.4 Leaves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30.5 Transport of Water and Solutes in Plants . . . . 30.6 Plant Sensory Systems and Responses . . . . . Chapter 31: Soil and Plant Nutrition . . . . . . . . . . . 31.1 Nutritional Requirements of Plants . . . . . . . . 31.2 The Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.3 Nutritional Adaptations of Plants . . . . . . . . . Chapter 32: Plant Repro...
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