Chapter_12_Lecture_Outline - SOC 241:1 Professor J Garcia...

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SOC 241:1 Professor J. Garcia CHAPTER 12 LECTURE OUTLINE Why Do We Help? o Social Exchange Theory Human interactions are transactions that aim to maximize one’s reward and minimize one’s cost External Rewards o Money, social approval, fame, admission Internal Rewards o Reduce our own distress and/or guilt Especially if we’ve done something wrong Unless we’re absorbed with our negative mood o A positive mood makes us more likely to help o Social Norms Reciprocity Norm To those who help us, we should return help o Pay it forward meets the urge to return the help Social-Responsibility Norm We should help those who need help, without regard to future exchanges o Tied to attributions o Super storm sandy (how we responded to the same disasters with different social classes and races) Social norms and gender Women are “suppose” to be more helpful but are seen as helpless Women are more likely to seek and receive help Women will commonly ask for more help Men and women are equally likely to offer help o Evolutionary Psychology Kin Selection More likely to save your family then a friend Reciprocity Expecting things in return of those you know Group Selection More supportive of in group, especially in competition Genuine Altruism o Collapse of Compassion Decreasing concern as the number of suffering people increases o Distress v. Empathy Empathy comes naturally Empathy elicits a stronger response o Three Types of Helping Obviously Egoistic
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Motivated by external and internal rewards Nothing genuine Subtly Egoistic Done to gain internal rewards or to relieve internal distress Genuine Altruism Empathy induced Want to contribute Increase someone else’s well being Elevation is a byproduct When Will We Help? o The Bystander Effect As the number of bystanders increases we are less likely to: Notice Interpret the incident as problematic o Informational influence; illusion of transparency o Imminent danger reduces the effect Assume responsibility for taking action o Responsibility diffusion o Unless the bystanders are friends or share a group identity Kitty Genivese o Elevation o Helping when someone else does Prosocial models promote altruism o
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