Answers Exam 2 - Very short answer(2 of these will appear...

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Very short answer (2 of these will appear on the test, no choice, you’ll answer both): 1. What are the philosophical differences between consciousness and ideology, according to Ewick? (Ch. 5) Originally ideology and consciousness were opposites. Ideology was a system of beliefs that naturalized inequality and consciousness was the awareness held by individuals that those beliefs were distorted. Now ideology is more neutral and involves ideas dealing with power which is what separates it from consciousness. Consciousness is the participation in the ideology and both of them are part of a larger process of social construction. Ideology shapes social life because it invites thinking. Consciousness is an active process that involves making meanings, produces, or challenges ideology. Ideology must be applied and lived and it is within those processes that ideology gains its power. 2. List and briefly describe the impediments facing women in gaining access to the legal process and to legal advice, according to Boyd. (Ch. 14) According to Boyd, women have an apparent economic advantage and funding for legal aid of such family law issues is inadequate, if it exists at all. Violence against women creates another inequality between men and women in the legal system. This creates a disadvantaged position for the women relating to bargaining power with their ex and the abusive men often use legal processes to gain power and control of the woman who had left them. This situation is made worse by the growing emphasis on paternal contact with the children as well as the declining funding for legal aid. The failure of mediation, negotiation, and litigation in taking this violence seriously also adds to the inequality between men and women as well as the ability for women to obtain a fair settlement. 3. What is the claim of those who critique the critique of rights, according to Nielsen? (Ch. 4) The critique of rights is that rights are socially constructed and overutilized. It argues that rights are not neutral and are unequally enjoyed by others. On the other hand, critical race and feminist theorists, among others, argue that rights serve as a significant source of power for members of traditionally disadvantaged groups because of the characteristics inherent in the social construction of a legal right. Rights ideally are applied equally to everyone, neutral, and are backed by the legitimate authority of law and the state. It is this ideal that can serve as a source of power for disadvantaged groups because it gives them definition and a common ground to start from by establishing community norms and membership. 4. Name the four aspects of community policing, according to Bell. What are some of the problems or potential problems with community policing, according to this article? (Ch. 8) The four aspects of community policing are organizing community-based crime prevention, reorienting patrol activities to emphasize the services of the police in nonemergencies, increasing
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Answers Exam 2 - Very short answer(2 of these will appear...

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