Notes for Exam

Notes for Exam - March 3, 2008 Drugs And Crime (cont'd.)...

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March 3, 2008 Drugs And Crime (cont’d.) And Control Theories Drugs and Crime 1800s o Drugs were unregulated and uncontrolled o Ex: Coca-Cola-“Tired, then drink Coca-Cola”; had cocaine in it at the time; invented by a pharmacist as a temperance drink (during no alcohol prohibitions) o Ex: “Cocaine toothache drops” o Heroin was easily available and used for medicinal purposes (heroin, morphine, and opium— godsends for medicine—masked the symptoms rather than solved them) o Technological Advances 1803: morphine extracted from opium 1831: codeine synthesized from opium 1856: hypodermic syringe 1859: cocaine isolated from coca leaves 1874: heroin synthesized from morphine Added to potency and addictiveness of drugs o Three groups of drug users: Medical users (largest group – composed of white middle and upper class ladies who were prescribed narcotics for lady problems) Opium smokers (primarily Chinese immigrants) Criminal underworld addicts Important Laws o 1882 – Chinese Exclusion Act o 1909 – Smoking Opium Exclusion Act (worry it might spread to upper classes) o 1906 – Pure Food and Drug Act (Sinclaire’s Jungle , concerns about food and drug safety) Created FDA Required ingredient labels (put an end to “elixir” industry) Harrison Narcotics Tax Act-1914 o Illegal for regular people to buy and sell drugs (narcotics) o Near impossible for doctors and businesses (so many rules that it was virtually impossible to follow them—making it illegal) o Doctors and pharmacists still biggest dealers (many—30,000—were arrested until 1930 for dispensing narcotics—3,000 served time for it); withdraw and stop dispensing in the 30s o Shift in composition of addict population (from medical patients to more criminal underworld addicts—beginning of black market of drug sales and dealing) o Concern drugs would undermine stability of our nation politically Heroin o 1920s-1930s: cheap, potent heroin replaced morphine as drug of choice o 1927: government seized 4 lbs of morphine for every pound of heroin o 1932: government seized 3.4 lbs of heroin for every pound of morphine Prohibition 1920-1933 o The desire to make alcohol illegal by a number of different groups: xenophobes (those who don’t like immigrants), women rights advocates (felt it was a problem for women’s rights because men were getting drunk and coming home and beating their wives), businesses (didn’t want workers to drink on the job or come to work drunk due to worker’s comp laws that had just been passed), conservatives (on moral grounds) o “Save our children” campaign o Drinking did go down a little bit during this time but crime increased a lot o Al Capone – prohibition solidified organized crime in this country o Appeals to public changed – “Prohibition failed! Please do something about it”; same arguments only in reverse Marijuana o Originated in southwest (mostly Mexicans) o By 1930, prohibited in most states west of Mississippi o Much fear it would spread to women and children
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Notes for Exam - March 3, 2008 Drugs And Crime (cont'd.)...

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