Psychology Lecture Notes

Psychology Lecture Notes - Psychology Lecture Notes 1 What...

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Psychology Lecture Notes   10/1/07 1. What Causes Somatoform Disorders? 2. The psychodynamic view  a. Modern theorists propose that two mechanisms are at work in the hysterical  disorders: i. Primary gain: hysterical symptoms keep internal conflicts out of conscious  awareness ii. Secondary gain: hysterical symptoms further enable people to avoid  unpleasant activities or to receive kindness or sympathy from others 3. What Causes Somatoform Disorders? 4. The behavioral view a. Behavioral theorists propose that the physical symptoms of hysterical disorders  bring rewards to sufferers i. May remove individual from an unpleasant situation ii. May bring attention to the individual b. In response to such rewards, people learn to display symptoms more and more c. This focus on rewards is similar to the psychodynamic idea of secondary gain,  but behaviorists view the gains as the primary cause of the development of the  disorder 5. What Causes Somatoform Disorders? 6. The cognitive view
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a. Cognitive theorists propose that hysterical disorders are a form of  communication, providing a means for people to express difficult emotions i. Like psychodynamic theorists, cognitive theorists hold that emotions are  being converted into physical symptoms 1. This conversion is not to defend against anxiety but to  communicate extreme feelings 7. What Causes Somatoform Disorders? 8. A possible role for biology a. The impact of biological processes on somatoform disorders can be understood  through research on placebos and the placebo effect i. Placebos: substances with no known medicinal value ii. Treatment with placebos (i.e., sham treatment) has been shown to bring  improvement to many – possibly through the power of suggestion or  through the release of endogenous chemicals 9. How Are Somatoform Disorders Treated? 10. People with somatoform disorders usually seek psychotherapy as a last resort 11. Individuals with preoccupation disorders typically receive the kinds of treatments applied  to anxiety disorders: a. Antidepressant medication b. Exposure and response prevention (ERP) 12. How Are Somatoform Disorders Treated? 13. Individuals with hysterical disorders are typically treated with approaches that emphasize  either the cause or the symptoms, and may include: a. Drug therapy – especially antidepressant medication b. Insight – often psychodynamically oriented
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c. Exposure – client thinks about traumatic event(s) that triggered the physical  symptoms d. Suggestion – usually an offering of emotional support that may include hypnosis e. Reinforcement – a behavioral attempt to change reward structures f. Confrontation – an overt attempt to force patients out of the sick role 14. All approaches need more study 
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