psyc 250 class notes

psyc 250 class notes - 1 Evocative g e effect Genotype...

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1 January 29, 2008 Evocative g   e effect. Genotype causes something to happen in environment. Correlation family studies is most commonly used in behavior genetics studies Non-shared environment effects help us to understand how children in the same family can  be so different According to range of reaction principle, if child experiences severe maltreatment, likelihood  child will develop aggressive, antisocial behavior depends on childs genotype Third-variable problem: correlation b/w two variables may be the result of another factor Which prenatal period featurs the most sensitive period of development for most major  organ systems: embryonic. Brain Development Structures o Glial cells: support cells. Facilitate neuron communication. Ten times as many as  neurons o Neurons: send information to other neurons. Synapse between axon terminals and  dendrites. Neurotransmitters get released by axon terminals. .float across gap to  either slow down or speed up message. Gray matter and white matter. Gray matter: cell bodies and dendrites. Decrease in gray matter from 5-20  years of age. Reductions occur first in sensory and motor areas of cortex. Gray matter reductions in late adolescence and young adulthood in areas of  frontal cortex (response inhibition, emotional regulation, planning and  organizing.) White matter: myelinated axon fibers o Cerebral cortex: higher cognitive functions. Help us to have better judgement. Developmental processes: o Neurogenesis o Myelination: have un differentiated cells become swan cells. Progressive. o Synaptogenesis o Synapse elimination (pruning) o Neuron death Interaction of nture and nurture o Plasticity o Experience expectant plasticity: development depends on stimulation from the  normal environment that the species typically lives in. development depends on  stimulation at a particular time. Examples: vision, hearing, social attachment o Experience-dependent plasticity: stimulation is not predetermined or anticipated at a  particular time
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2 February 5, 2008 Theories of Cognitive Development Chapter 4 Four perspectives: Piaget’s constructivist approach Information processing Core knowledge Vygotsky’s sociocultural approach Jean Piaget Born 1896 in Switzerland Precocious scientist. Published first scientific paper at age of 10 Biology and epistemology. Philosophy of knowledge Worked with Alfred Binet on IQ tests A lot of work was based on observations of his own children Piaget’s Theory Constructivist approach o Children discover or construct all knowledge about their world through their own activity Basic Cognitive Functions o Adaptation: we change and learn from our experience. Building increasingly complex
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psyc 250 class notes - 1 Evocative g e effect Genotype...

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