EXAM-review-microbio - MICRO EXAM REVIEW PART 1 EMERGING...

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MICRO EXAM REVIEW PART 1: EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES Beneficial Roles of Microbes - Treat sewage, break down garbage, keeps us at a certain weight, make food, inflammation process & allergies, in Lower Intestine synthesize vitamins to allow breakdown, 8 million expressed by our body, N/S/P/C/O2 recycled by bacteria - 90 % of microbes are important - Turn inorganic molecules into organic compounds ie. Nucleic acids - Make oxygen; break down waste; food production (wine, cheese, bread); drug preparation (insulin, penicillin) - Digestion & nutrition in animals/humans vitamin K synthesized by microbes (int flora produce vitamin K) o Also in cows they don’t have enzymes to break down cellulose, instead they have many different microorganisms living in their guts that make the enzymes that are able to break it down - Natural microbial flora provides protection against more virulent microbes - When the normal composition of microbes is thrown out of balance, the body’s natural defens es become exhausted/overwhelmed and the human host can experience a myriad of negative effects like obesity, inflammation, allergy and infection Microbes and Disease - cause many epidemics Microbe-Host Equilibrium - natural evolution of a microbe operates on a spreading capacity, not on it’s ability to cause a disease - TB (stays in system for 30 years before killing em) & HIV (24 years): less aggressive, take longer to kill - Ebola virus/SARS: extremely aggressive, kills a lot of ppl (90% of infected ppl quickly) - Natural selection favors less or non virulent microbes Microbial Epidemics in humans - epidemic : disease that infects a large number of ppl at the same time - virulent microbe : microbe that tends to cause severe disease - pandemic : epidemics that affect large geographic regions and have potential to spread worldwide - in the mid 1900s, scientists/policy makers attn. from infectious diseases as vaccines (smallpox & polio) and antibiotics made diseases rare (developed world) - in 1969 the US surgeon general of congress said its time to close the book on infectious diseases Emerging Infectious Diseases - as a group, infectious diseases wont disappear due to: o Drug resistant strains: TB o Outbreaks of existing diseases: WNV (NA), Flu (H1N1 of 1918) o New disease causing agents ie. HIV/AIDS (1930s), SARS, Ebola virus, monkey pox (small pox) - monkey pox: giant Gambian rat US prairie dog humans; related to smallpox, symptoms incl rash, fever, chills, sores not usually fatal S&S for 2-4 weeks, no vaccine - AIDS chimpanzee amplified by sexual activity, drugs, addiction, blood products
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MICRO EXAM REVIEW - SARS Bats, palm civet amplified by restaurants, hotels, hospitals - WNV birds (wild) amplified by tire industry - Influenza wild aquatic birds amplified by poultry farms - Monkey pox wild rodents in Africa amplified by pet retailers and stores - Antibiotics : treat bacterial infections (overuse can cause resistant bacteria) - Vaccines : prevent viral and some bacterial infections Super Spreading of SARS - Guangdong Province, China A Hotel in Hong Kong
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