American Civil Rights Notes

American Civil Rights Notes - AMERICAN CIVIL RIGHTS NOTES...

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AMERICAN CIVIL RIGHTS NOTES 1856: Dred Scott vs Sandford. Supreme Court ruled in 1857 that people of African descent, whether or  not they were slaves, could never be citizens of the United States, and that Congress had no authority  to prohibit slavery in federal territories. 1866: Civil Rights Act 1868: Civil Rights Act effectively incorporated into Constitution in XIV Amendment. “Section 1. All  persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of  the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which  shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive  any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its  jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.” 1896: Plessy vs Ferguson – railroad segregation permissible under Fourteenth Amendment.  1951-2: Brown vs Board of Education What caused change? Different sorts of factors. Blacks from southern farms   northern cities   gained franchise   more clout in national politics. Better jobs   higher incomes.  As they moved from southern farms   northern cities, better networks established that facilitated   collective protest.  Foreign policy also made a difference:  “As the nation fought wars to “make the world safe for democracy” [Wilson] and to defeat Nazi fascism,  millions of white Americans reconsidered the meaning of democracy and whether it was consistent with  a racial caste system”. “Rosenberg emphasizes the successes of the civil rights movement and the ways in which the Cold War  helped bring race reform to fruition in the United States.” “Links between the African American freedom struggle to the global freedom struggle.” Plessy Era   1895-1910 Four main issues:  1. constitutionality of state imposed racial segregation 2. disfranchising of blacks by southern states 3. exclusion of blacks from juries 4. education of blacks Supreme Court narrowly interpreted the 14 th th  amendments. Other times, rejected arguments on  procedural grounds. Often imposed stringent standards of proof and invoked broad deference to state  court findings of fact. 
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Scholars vilify Court during this era. “ridiculous and shameful” to “racist and repressive” and a  “catastrophe”.  In context, race relations up to 1890 were generally good, with legislation enforcing the rights of blacks.  1890s: states stopped blacks voting. Segregation in rail travel up. Black officeholding waned, then  disappeared. Racial disparities in educational funding became enormous in early 20
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2008 for the course PPE PPE taught by Professor None during the Summer '08 term at Oxford University.

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American Civil Rights Notes - AMERICAN CIVIL RIGHTS NOTES...

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