fermination - Khaleed Alston October 16, 2007 BIO 111L Dr....

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Khaleed Alston October 16, 2007 BIO 111L Dr. Sharif Oxidation Lab Introduction: Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleotide, which is composed of three subunits: ribose, adenine and a triphosphate group. ATP is the fundamental chemical that provides energy to cells. ATP fuels almost cellular process that requires energy: biosynthesis, ion transport, and muscle contraction. Cells oxidize of carbohydrates, fats and proteins through glycolysis, respiration and fermentation to provide chemical energy that is used to synthesize ATP (Roskoski). Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) is commonly metabolized to produce energy. Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol and is the process of converting glucose to pyruvate and usable energy. It is the preliminary reaction in both aerobic and anaerobic respiration, as pyruvate is the necessary starting component for both cellular respiration and fermentation (Rich, 2003) Cellular Respiration is the aerobic process where the pyruvate from glycolysis is completely oxidized to form carbon dioxide, water, and ATP. In the first phase of this reaction (pyruvate oxidation) the pyruvate is oxidized to form CO 2 , NADH H+, and Acetyl CoA. The Acetyl CoA is then the starting point for the Citric Acid Cycle where the acetyl is oxidized to from CO 2 , FADH 2 , NADH H+, and ATP ( Dickinson, 1999). This is followed by Oxidative Phosphorylation, the final process in cellular respiration. Oxidatve Phosphorylation is the process of ATP synthesis through the passing of electrons the electron transport chain and chemiosmosis. In the electron transport chain
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electron carriers pass the electrons from the NADH and the FADH across the mitochondrial membrane creating a proton concentration gradient. The protons then diffuse back across the membrane protein known as ATP synthase. The pumping of protons in and out of the mitochondria produces ATP (Sugden, 2003). Cellular respiration is very effective because it completely oxidizes the matter, however this process can only be preformed in the presence of oxygen. When there is no oxygen available the pyruvate is instead broken down in a process called fermentation (Rich,
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This note was uploaded on 04/28/2008 for the course BIO 111 taught by Professor Dunn during the Spring '08 term at Morehouse.

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fermination - Khaleed Alston October 16, 2007 BIO 111L Dr....

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