Day 20-21 Reserves, matrix management II

Day 20-21 Reserves, matrix management II - Just an outline...

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Unformatted text preview: Just an outline – NOT all you need to know What’s not protected? No protection for vulnerable vertebrates 223 birds spp. 140 mammal spp. 346 amphibian spp. 943+ others have very little protection Marine ecosystems 1% protected Need ~20% to manage commercial fish stocks How is land selected for protection? Biological criteria High species richness (“hotspots”) Endemic species (e.g., Endemic Bird Areas) Focal species- Indicator species- Flagship species Ecosystem-based selection- Rarity- Representative Current protection 9.9% island systems 9.3% temperate rainforest 0.8% grasslands 1.3% lake systems Complementarity New sites should build on existing system- what is already protected?- which areas would add most new protection? GAP analysis → Identify what biodiversity there is in an area → Identify conservation goals → Determine what is already protected → Determine which areas best “fill in the gaps” → Target these areas for conservation 1 Just an outline – NOT all you need to know How is land selected for protection? Economics affects selection Affordability Ecosystem services Alternative demands Availability Accessibility Another Real-World Point • Reserves often built sequentially, not all at once • So, as you add reserves, you can ask ‘what provides the best additional protection given what I already have? Area networks • Large scale conservation • Linking existing reserves • types of species, processes, & ecosystems protected • Same issues of individual reserve design • Historically, established in haphazardly Currently: • Reserve placement often based on – Human population – Perceived land value – Political effort • Or, many placed where there is no immediate commercial value 2 Just an outline – NOT all you need to know Reserve area selection theory • Network design must incorporate: – Landscape mosaics (integrating terrestrial & aquatic areas) – Vegetation cover & configuration – Landscape dynamics (such as fires) – Maintaining capacity to recover from disturbance (resilience) – Adaptive Management Modeling a network (Miers et al. 2004 Ecol Letters): • Creating an ecologically effective global conservation network could cost $3-11 billion / yr for 30 years • Compared effectiveness of different rules for creating a network to protect 13 imperiled bird species; up to 12 sites • Decision rules: – Minimum set = the complete network of sites that protects each species in at least 1 site for the least cost (= buy site only if it is in this set) – Richness = # of unprotected species that would be added to the reserve network if site were protected – Irreplaceability = % of biodiversity within the site that would be lost if site were lost • Incorporated: – Uncertainty about when & where opportunities for conservation investment may arise • Different land acquirement schedules • All at once vs. pieces added over timeAll at once vs....
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This note was uploaded on 04/28/2008 for the course BIO 144 taught by Professor Reed during the Spring '08 term at Tufts.

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Day 20-21 Reserves, matrix management II - Just an outline...

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