Day 18-19 Reserves, matrix management I

Day 18-19 Reserves, matrix management I - Just an outline...

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Unformatted text preview: Just an outline NOT all you need to know How much land do we need to protect? Minimum protected area - Once we know how big a population needs to be, we can start to figure out how much space that population will need To do this, we need to know: home range size (area in which an animal lives) overlap in home ranges degree of territoriality/coloniality use of multiple habitats special requirements 4 Rs of protected area design Representative : should contain as many aspects of biodiversity as possible Resiliency : large enough & well managed to maintain biodiversity in a healthy condition for the foreseeable future Redundancy : include enough biodiversity to ensure long-term existence of the network in the face of uncertainties Reality : sufficient resources (support) to acquire & manage network What land is currently protected? Globally 18.4 million km2 (12.65% Earths land surface) 104,791 sites 5% Earths surface is strictly protected Only 1% of marine environment 1300 marine reserves 800,000 km2 (half in only 3 places) In U.S. NP, NWR, NF: 1,657,084 km2 Marine sanctuaries: 46,548 km2 Not all protected land has high conservation value Scenic beauty ~7% of worlds protected land is in Greenland U.S. National Parks In California- 95% of alpine/subalpine habitat protected- 10% of chaparral, coastal scrub, grassland 1 Just an outline NOT all you need to know How big should reserves be? You create a reserve what happens to species richness over time? Goal = retain all target species Mount Rainier National Park Parks lose species over time why? = faunal relaxation Newmark (1987, 1995) studies of parks: numerous local extinctions NOT from direct human activity More extinction than colonization # extinctions > in small parks # extinctions > in old parks 3 smallest parks lost 40% of large mammals Largest park lost none (except wolf; killed off by humans) Which species should go extinct first? 2 100% 78% 58% 57% 43% 86 68 50 49 37 w. WA mammals Pot ent ial par k mammals 1920 est imat e 1930-35 est imat e 1974-76 est imat e 100% 78% 58% 57% 43% 86 68 50 49 37 w. WA mammals Pot ent ial par k mammals 1920 est imat e 1930-35 est imat e 1974-76 est imat e Just an outline NOT all you need to know What if habitat is constantly changing? What types of species should disappear next? (fragmentation, habitat loss, succession) Intact habitat habitat matrix perforated variegated fragmented What species type is most likely to disappear over time? Why? (hint: what forces most affect abundance & persistence now?) Extinction Debt = a future ecological cost to current habitat destruction Reminder: Levins metapopulation model 1 species c, e = colonization & extinction parameters p = fraction of occupied patches Single-species model with permanent habitat loss, D (=% of patches lost) Multi-species model with loss & competition...
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This note was uploaded on 04/28/2008 for the course BIO 144 taught by Professor Reed during the Spring '08 term at Tufts.

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Day 18-19 Reserves, matrix management I - Just an outline...

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