Lab 3 key PA - ANT301 Summer 2007 Introduction to Physical...

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ANT301 Summer 2007 Introduction to Physical Anthropology LAB 3 EXERCISE Name _____KEY_________________ Lab _________________________ LAB THREE EXERCISE: PRIMATE FEEDING BEHAVIOR AND DIETARY ADAPTATIONS Questions based on the Game 1. Convert the resources of each species into offspring for every year on the sheets provided. 2. Using the data collected which type of food would each species prefer, if resources were unlimited? a) Red-Tailed Monkeys: fruits/frugivore Black and White Colobus: leaves/folivore Red Colobus: leaves/folivore Mangabeys: fruits/frugivore b) Which group of monkeys was most successful? While results may have varied from one year to the next, the average result shows that the two colobus groups were overall more successful than the other two monkey groups. c) Why (what strategy did they use to out compete the other monkeys)? Utilization of leaves as the predominant food type in the diet proved to be a successful strategy for the two colobine groups – in large part the success is due to the ubiquitous nature of leaves within a rain forest setting – the distri- bution of leaves is continuous (spatially and temporally) – because leaves are so abundant, there is effectively no competition for access to leaves. In a sense, folivores eliminate the problem of food competition by consistently us- ing a food type that is easy to acquire and nearly limitless in its distribution. 3. Define niche. How do primate species manage food competition with other primate species in their habitat? While many species may share a habitat, each species within that habitat has its own niche. A species’ niche includes only those elements of the environment with which it interacts, this includes foods, substrates, other animals, etc… Niche separation refers to the process whereby species focus or limit their activities to certain factors of the habitat and in so doing avoid competition with other species for ac- cess to resources. Consider a single tall tree in the rain forest. At its lower trunk mar- mosets may spend much of their time feeding on gum exudates while in its canopy 1
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ANT301 Summer 2007 Introduction to Physical Anthropology woolly spider monkeys may forage for leaves and/or fruits. Additionally, the marmosets will likely travel at the low heights associated with their foods while the woolly spider monkeys will tend to travel in the canopy. Each of the two species may use the same trees yet each interacts with different parts of the habitat and therefore do not compete directly with one another. Their niches are separate from one another. 4. Leaves are the most readily available food in the forest. Why don't all primates just eat leaves? Leaves are a fairly low quality food. Nutritionally they are low in energy although they are adequate (in large quantity) in protein, especially young buds and shoots. Addition- ally leaves are difficult to digest due to secondary toxins and structurally complex cellu- lose. In fact, in order to derive needed nutrients and energy from leaves, a primate must be of
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Lab 3 key PA - ANT301 Summer 2007 Introduction to Physical...

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