EGEE101EX2NOTES - Exam 2 Notes Exam 2 Date o 3/27/2008 6:30...

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Exam 2 Notes Exam 2 Date o 3/27/2008 6:30 Bouke Wind Power Wind Power Notes 1. Wind Power a. Wind is caused by the uneven heating of the earth's atmosphere i. During the day the breeze is from the ocean at night from the land to the sea b. Turbines capture kinetic energy of wind and use it to generate electricity c. Wind Energy History i. U.S. wind industry generated about 4.5 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity (1999) ii. About 5,374 megawatts of wind power capacity were installed in the U.S. (as of Jan. 2004), generating over 16 billion kilowatt -hours annually 1. That is as much electricity as about 1.6 million average American households each year d. Wind Power Capacity of the top 4 Countries i. Germany - 21,283 MW ii. Spain - 12,801 MW iii. United States - 12,634 MW iv. India - 7,231 MW e. Top States with Installed Capacity i. Texas - 3,352 MW ii. California - 2,376 MW iii. Iowa - 967 MW iv. Minnesota - 897 MW v. Pennsylvania - 179 MW f. Growth of Wind Energy in the US i. Has nearly doubled since 2002 (from 6,000 MW to 12,000 MW g. Top 20 States for Wind Energy Potential i. North Dakota - 1,210 kWh ii. Texas - 1,190 kWh iii. Kansas - 1,070 kWh iv. South Dakota - 1,030 kWh 2. Wind Energy Formula a. P = ½ (α * ρ * Πr^2 * v^3) i. α = efficiency of turbine ii. ρ = density of air - in kg/m^3 iii. r = radius of the blade - in meters iv. v = velocity of wind - in m/s
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b. Example i. α = .59 ii. ρ = 1.2 kg/m^3 iii. r = 15.87 m iv. v = 7.1 m/s v. ½ (.59 * 1.2 * Π15.87^2 * 7.1^3) = P 1. 100.25 kW c. Betz Limit i. Theoretically, only 59.6% of the wind energy can be extracted 3. Wind Energy Potential a. Wind energy could supply about 20% of the nation's electricity, according to Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, a federal research lab. i. Wind energy resources useful for generating electricity can be found in nearly every state b. According to the U.S. Department of Energy, the world's winds could theoretically supply the equivalent of 5,800 quadrillion BTUs (quads) of energy each year i. More than 15 times the current world energy demand 4. Pennsylvania Wind Energy a. Wind Power class between 3 and 5 b. Winds with speeds of roughly 6.4-8.0 m/s 5. Cost of Wind Energy a. Wind Energy is already one of the most cost- competitive renewable energy technologies at about 3-5 cents per kilowatt-hour b. Even so, wind-generated electricity still costs more than electricity from natural gas or coal plants 6. Advantages a. Renewable b. Domestic Energy c. Rural Development d. No air emissions e. No fuel to mine, transport, or store f. No cooling water g. No water pollution h. No wastes 7. Wind Power Disadvantages a. Large plots of land needed b. Noise pollution c. Ugly
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d. Expensive (2 cents per kWh) e. Avian issues f. Problems with storage (batteries are expensive) Geothermal Energy 1. Geothermal Energy a. What is it? i.
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This note was uploaded on 04/28/2008 for the course EGEE 101 taught by Professor Mathews,jonathan during the Spring '06 term at Pennsylvania State University, University Park.

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EGEE101EX2NOTES - Exam 2 Notes Exam 2 Date o 3/27/2008 6:30...

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