CHAPTER 1 TermsAdaptationsIn evolutionary theory, the physical characteristics, skills, or abilities that increase the chances of reproduction or survival and are therefore likely to be passed along to future. BehaviorismA psychological approach that emphasizes the role of environmental forces in producing behavior. Cognitive NeuroscienceThe study of the neural mechanisms (mechanisms involving the brain, nerves, and nervous tissue) that underlie thought, learning, and memory. Cognitive PsychologyThe study of how people think, learn, and rememberCritical ThinkingSystematically evaluating information to reach reasonable conclusions. CultureThe beliefs, values, rules and customs that exist within a group of people who share a common language and environment andthat are transmitted through learning from one generation to the next. Evolutionary Theory A theory presented by the naturalist Charles Darwin; it views thehistory of a species in terms of the inherited, adaptive value of physical characteristics, of mental activity, and of behavior. FunctionalismAn approach to psychology concerned with the adaptive purpose, or function, of mind and behaviorGestalt TheoryA theory based on the idea that the whole of personal experience is different from simply the sum of its constituent elements.IntrospectionA systematic examination of subjective mental experiences that requires people to inspect and report on the content of their thoughts. Mind/body ProblemA fundamental psychological issue: Are mind and body separate and distinct, or is the mind simply the physical brain’s subjective experience?Natural Selection
In evolutionary theory, the idea that those who inherit characteristics that help them adapt to their particular environments have a selective advantage over those who do. Nature/nurture debate The arguments concerning whether psychological characteristicsare biologically innate or acquired through education, experience, and culture. PsychoanalysisA method developed by Sigmund Freud that attempts to bring the contents of the unconscious into conscious awareness so that conflicts can be revealed. Psychological ScienceThe study of mind, brain, and behavior. Social Psychology The study of how people are influenced by their interactions with others. Stream of consciousness A phrase coined by William James to describe each person’s continuous series of ever-changing thoughts. Structuralism An approach to psychology based on the idea that conscious experience can be broken down into its basic underlying components. UnconsciousThe mental processes that operate below the level of conscious awareness. Personality Psychology The study of characteristics, thoughts, emotions, and behaviors in people and how they vary across social situations.