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Political Science 001 CH 05: PRE-TEST 1. As outlined in Martin Luther King Jr.’s “Letter from the Birmingham Jail”, what was one of the key parts of civil rights protests in the South in the early 1960’s? ( Nonviolence) 2. Cases involving gender discrimination fall under which legal test? (intermediate scrutiny) 3. How has the Supreme Court ruled on attempts to establish English as the official language in several states? (they have upheld such attempts) 4. Imagine two government actions. The first is a Supreme Court ruling that the government cannot prevent someone from sending out pamphlets protesting a war. The second is a part of the bureaucracy that reviews complaints about racialand gender discrimination of employers. The first example deals primarily with ______, while the second is more about ______. (civil liberties; civil rights) 5. In the landmark decision _____________, the Court ruled that rigid racial quotas were unconstitutional but allowed race to be a “plus factor” used in admissions decisions (University of California Regents v. Bakke (1978) 6. Jim Crow laws were passed ___________ the civil war, leading to complete ___________ of the races. (after; segregation) 7. Segregation that exists because of circumstances that occur outside the law iscalled ____________ segregation ( de facto) 8. The ____________ holds that discrimination exists if a practice has a negativeeffect on a specific group, whether or not this effect was intentional (disparate impact standard)