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Unformatted text preview: Social Influence The "Big 6"
and Consistency Commitment Liking Reciprocity Consensus Scarcity Authority 1) Commitment and Consistency If you can secure a commitment from someone, they will "follow up" in ways that are consistent 1) Underlying Psychological Mechanisms Self Perception You observe that you are committing to something and you assume that it is because you want to Stability and Consistency tensions Cognitive Your Bolstering initial belief to do something leads to other beliefs or actions that support it You consciously generate new reasons to support your commitment, and they eventually override the original reason 1) Commitment & Consistency Cont. Connectedness E.g. Big commitments are often in front of people
Marriage College Graduation If you make a public commitment, its harder to be inconsistent 1) Commitment & Consistency Cont. Ex: Foot in the Door A small request is followed by a large request Freedman & Fraiser 1) Commitment & Consistency Cont. Ex: Low-Balling You make the commitment, (perform some cognitive bolstering) then the additional costs are brought to attention... You are stuck: You stay committed Ex: Bait and Switch "While supplies Last" Brings in Scarcity and Cognitive Bolstering Going to get the super-cool widget 2) Liking Underlying Similarity Familiarity Mere Psychological Principles Exposure Associative Learning Similarity (to you)
your view of the self Validates Easily exploited! Pay attention to commercials---note that the products that are sold are sold to a particular audience by actors who are similar to them! 2) Liking Cont. Familiarity Coke (to you) is one of the most recognized symbols in the world Pepsi started the "Blind Taste Test" for the Pepsi Challenge Overwhelming majority preferred Pepsi Coke decides to change the taste of coke to make it sweeter Didn't tell, just did it! Bombarded with angry calls/letters Had to set up a special 1-800# !!!! More on Coke... During WW2, the CEO of Coke offered US soldiers a bottle of coke for $.05 Over a billion sold! Why? By the end of the war, the US had funded to have 64 plants built all over the world Liking Cont. Mere The exposure effect (Zajonc) more you are presented with something, the more you like it! 2) Liking Cont. Associative Think Learning behaviorism People by clothing that represents sports teams or schools
Name of school on your rear-view window Tupperware Party Physical Attraction 3) Reciprocity Not based on liking at all! It works so well, because we all want to be nice Underlying Desire Psychological Principles Connectedness to maintain a high Self Esteem Social Exchange (indebtedness) 3) Reciprocity Cont. Functions Allows for Society for a Specialization of Labor Web of Indebtedness Conflict
When Resolution people fight it is common for them to isolate themselves... Reciprocal E.g. Concessions Law Making Door in the face
Ask for something really large (when you want something really small) All based on perceptual contrast Ex: Real Estate Agents Reciprocity "free enhances predictability samples" If you do something nice for someone, you KNOW they will help you later... And if they don't, you remind them and they rarely argue Strategic Manipulation!!!! If you use this strategically, you can dictate the terms of the exchange to make sure that you get what you want! Ex: E.g. "Free Samples" 4) Social Proof Seeing Get others do something validates it on the Band-wagon! Ex: Laugh Tracks on comedy shows Underlying Cognitive Psychological Principles Economy Connectedness Terror Management Theory 5) Scarcity Underlying
People Psychological Principle:
Reactance Psychological are strongly motivated to maintain their freedoms So when told, "You can't have this" we want it even more Learn to place a high value on things that are scarce 6) Authority Underlying TMT Psychological Principles Connectedness Note that when we have low cognitive resources or low motivation, we rely on "experts" and can easily be distracted by "status information" Length Superficial features of the speaker/ presenter But if we are motivated, or have cognitive resources, we focus on the quality of the arguement Message Framing ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2008 for the course PSYC 2084 taught by Professor Atanaka during the Spring '07 term at Virginia Tech.
- Spring '07
- Social Psychology