Attitudes - We are not neutral observers of the world...

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Unformatted text preview: We are not neutral observers of the world Attitudes Attitudes are Evaluations of people, objects or events Made of 3 parts Though all have 3 components, some can be more strongly tied to an experience Riding Motorcycles Drinking or drug use Seat belt use Affective: Emotional reaction towards object Morality, Sensory, Aesthetic, Conditioning E.g. Political, values Cognitive: Thoughts and beliefs about the object Fact based, logical, rational, need to be accurate E.g., vacuum cleaner Behavioral: Actions towards object We Infer attitudes from our actions Only in ambiguous or when there aren't alternative explanations Remember self perception theory? Explicit vs. Implicit Attitudes Explicit Implicit Consciously endorse and can easily discuss Involuntary, uncontrollable, even unconscious E.g., you get anxious just being around someone from a certain racial group May be you have an implicit prejudice??? Infer our attitudes from our behavior Changing Attitudes Cognitive Dissonance Theory Persuasive Communication 2 routes Messages are more persuasive if they target the specific attitude component E.g., convincing you to buy a vacuum Or buying jeans, make up, perfume How do persuasive arguments work? Central Route to Persuasion People elaborate on what they hear Think critically about the arguments Occurs when people are motivated to listen carefully Peripheral Route to Persuasion and have the ability to do so People are not motivated to pay attention to the facts Focus on surface characteristics/ cues How long it is Who is delivering it When does this happen? Elaboration likelihood Model Degree of Elaboration depends on the motivation and capacity available to focus on the argument Affected by: Personal relevance of topic Need for cognition Some people like to think more Capacity: Stress, Energy, distracted, too complex How do you make attitude change last? If you want to create long lasting attitude change, it is much better to take the central route Power of rationalization Reasons generated attitude change Emotions can change attitudes too Appeal to the affective component peer pressure people's values Alcohol, smoking, drugs social connectedness A great way is to use FEAR Should be at a moderate level--enough to E.g., commercials for medicinal products or diseases encourage them to reduce it but not too much to be distracting/overwhelming or cause reactance If Fear is too strong, people feel threatened and get defensive, and won't be able to think rationally Thus, it is key to: (1) induce a small amount of fear so that people pay attention, but then (2) provide recommendations to help, so that people who pay attention will know that their fear will be reduced Dissonance between self preservation and behavior Reactance Boomerang effect Feel like you are infringing on their freedom Scarcity principle! How can we strengthen our attitudes to make them less susceptible to influence and change? Influence Inoculation Initially expose them to small doses of the arguments against their position Be wary of product placement The more they have to think about pros and cons beforehand, the less easy it will be to change them Think movies Think Red Bull people Will be harder to influence you Question: Which is stronger, subliminal influence or supraliminal influence? Subliminal Influence Is it real? Does it really affect us? Yes Only in laboratory Confirmation Bias Too many distractions in realworld You expect something and "it happens" High Focus, Low distractions ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2008 for the course PSYC 2084 taught by Professor Atanaka during the Spring '07 term at Virginia Tech.

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