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Schemas4(outline) - More on Schemas and Social Cognition...

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Unformatted text preview: More on Schemas and Social Cognition People "see" and act so as to make Schemas come true 1) Cognitive Confirmation Bias Or... 2) Behavioral Confirmation Bias SelfFulfilling Prophecy Continued... Whether or not this occurs depends on: 1) 2) Key difference between Behavioral and Confirmation Bias Ability to change the target! Ex. Toaster Oven Perceiver Induced Constraint Then we commit ___________________ When will Schemas most likely affect our perception of others? Function of Accessibility and Availability 1) Accessibility: Degree of ambiguity Motivation to be open minded Mood Context Strength of expectation Culture 2) Availability Schemas allow for mental short cuts, or quick judgments using heuristics A) ________________________ Ease Confidence in accuracy Quick judgments B) ________________________ Compare stimuli to prototype E.g.... Think Hedge Hog! Heuristic cont... 3) ____________________________ You use a number or value as a starting point and adjust from this anchor When you have a starting point, you retrieve information that is consistent with it (through accessibility and rationalization) Group A 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 X 6 X 7 X 8 X 9 Group B 9 X 8 X 7 X 6 X 5 X 4 X 3 X 2 X 1 362, 880 Why did Group B come closer??? So, are Schemas and Mental Shortcuts good or Bad? Beneficial when they are: ________________ Harmful when they aren't... Vast quantities of information that we don't have the time nor the resources to thoroughly process Most of the time, they are! Prime Example: Stereotypes Minimize variability in the outgroup E.g., Payne (2001) Make judgments based on simple information Nonblack college students see pictures in rapid succession First was a face and second was a tool or a gun Participants told to pay attention to just the second picture and to indicate whether it was a tool or a gun (only had second) More likely misidentified the second picture as a gun when it was proceeded by a black face Another example... Correll, Park, Judd, Wittenbrink (2002) ___________________________________ People see young men in realistic settings Half Black, half White Either holding a hand gun or another similar looking item Instructed to hit a shoot or not shoot button (1/2 second to decide) Point Game, with the most points being removed for not shooting someone who had a gun Controlled thinking Do we ever use Controlled thought? Conscious, voluntary, and effortful Requires time, energy, and mental resources (motivation, attention, interest) Provides checks and balances on automatic thinking Avoids biases and false stereotypes Prejudice ***_____________________________ *** when decisions have clear consequences ...
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