PhilRel - Final Exam Study Guide gen

PhilRel - Final Exam Study Guide gen - Philosophy and...

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But rather Not Philosophy and Religion – Final Exam Study Guide What is religious faith supposed to do for you? The “human problem” and its “solution” o Sin/salvation o Ignorance/enlightenment Some important religious beliefs: There is a God o Who created the universe o Who is all powerful, all-knowing, and perfectly good o Who wants us to love and serve him We will live on after our bodies die o Some of us will end up in heaven, some in hell o Alternatively: we have had many different lives in many different bodies, and will have many more An assumption: That there is a truth, even if it’s hard to know what it is Three examples: o 1. Does the earth go around the sun? o 2. Does spinach taste good? o 3. Does the universe have a Creator? Question 3 is more like question 1 than like question 2 Does truth matter? The case of suicide bombers Method Clarifying concepts o The concept of God o Omnipotence, omniscience, perfect goodness, eternity Giving an argument o Giving reasons for thinking that some proposition is true o (Premises and conclusion) “If there is no God, then what’s so special about human beings? They’re just accidental by-products of nature which have evolved relatively recently on an infinitesimal speck of dust called the planet Earth, lost somewhere in a hostile and mindless universe, and which are doomed to perish individually and collectively in a relatively short time. On the atheistic view, if you can escape the social consequences, there’s nothing really wrong with your raping someone. And thus without God there is no absolute right and wrong which imposes itself on our conscience. But the fact is that objective values do exist, and we all know it. There is no more reason to deny the objective reality of moral values than the objective reality of physical objects. Actions like rape, torture, child abuse aren’t just socially unacceptable behavior. They’re moral abominations. Some things are really wrong. Similarly, love, equality, self-sacrifice are really good. But if objective values cannot exist without God and objective values do exist, then it follows logically and inescapably that God exists.” -William Lane Craig William Lane Craig (Example 1): 1. There are objective moral values 2. If there were no God, there would be no objective moral values 3. Therefore God exists Evaluating arguments o Two questions: Are the premises true? How much support, if any, do they provide for the conclusion? Why accept 2? o If there were no God, then human beings are just “accidental by-products” of a mindless universe that also destroys them
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o So there would be nothing special about human beings o So there would be no objective moral values Example 2: 1. Everything that begins to exist has a cause 2. The universe began to exist ten or fifteen billion years ago 3. So the universe has a cause Example 2: 1. There is a Moral Law 2. So there must be a Divine Law Giver Example 3:
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PhilRel - Final Exam Study Guide gen - Philosophy and...

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