Chapter 16: Crime, Deviance, & Social Control
Once we ask ourselves why wearing clothing is an obligation, we open up a whole series of
questions that go right to the heart of how society exerts its force over individuals & w/ what
Case for 20 y/o Berkeley undergraduate Andrew Martinez “naked guy” who didn’t wear
Why do we have to wear clothes?
Who decided that clothes are a necessary part of our everyday appearance?
Why does the Berkeley city government arrest & punish someone simply b/c he
or she refuses to wear clothes?
Council passed measure banning public nudity & arresting Martinez every time he
appeared naked in public
1. What is deviance?
How do groups distinguish themselves?
Sigmund Freud in
Civilization and Its Discontents
—all cultures impose the young some
very strict rules about the most basic of needs
At young age, child is told to not play w/ food
One of first lessons of dominance & social control
Child ultimately gives up & gives over to the behavioral rules
Power group (parents) determine what is normal & what is deviant
Deviance & control always constitute a paired relationship
Groups outside family exert similar pressures to conform throughout individual’s life
Done via positive affirmations (claims) to establish boundaries
Signal who is in the group & who is out
Negative affirmations: constitute what we aren’t allowed to do if we are to retain
Positive affirmations of group membership
All groups set markers at their boundaries