Chapter 16- Crime, Deviance, Social Control - Chapter 16...

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Chapter 16: Crime, Deviance, & Social Control Pages 442-471 Once we ask ourselves why wearing clothing is an obligation, we open up a whole series of questions that go right to the heart of how society exerts its force over individuals & w/ what consequences. Case for 20 y/o Berkeley undergraduate Andrew Martinez “naked guy” who didn’t wear clothes Raises questions: Why do we have to wear clothes? Who decided that clothes are a necessary part of our everyday appearance? Why does the Berkeley city government arrest & punish someone simply b/c he or she refuses to wear clothes? Council passed measure banning public nudity & arresting Martinez every time he appeared naked in public 1. What is deviance?
How do groups distinguish themselves? Sigmund Freud in Civilization and Its Discontents —all cultures impose the young some
very strict rules about the most basic of needs At young age, child is told to not play w/ food o One of first lessons of dominance & social control Child ultimately gives up & gives over to the behavioral rules Power group (parents) determine what is normal & what is deviant Deviance & control always constitute a paired relationship Groups outside family exert similar pressures to conform throughout individual’s life Done via positive affirmations (claims) to establish boundaries o Signal who is in the group & who is out Negative affirmations: constitute what we aren’t allowed to do if we are to retain membership Positive affirmations of group membership All groups set markers at their boundaries
Groups are often defined via objective criteria (shared language, same job) but identity of group is more importantly tied to way group members defined themselves & are defined by groups In school, those who study too hard=nerds In school, those who play sports: jocks Symbolic boundaries: symbolic ideas & values about who the group members are Give group its identity Different spaces are defined When entering church, it is a symbolic boundary b religious space & secular one Immigration (process of moving from one country to another) gives example of how physical & symbolic boundaries work to define groups Countries often mark boundaries b/w themselves by establishing physical borders o Ex: U.S.-Mexico border Borders signal to us that we are moving from a territory belonging to one group to territory belonging to another Boundaries are used to differentiate symbolic space

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