World History-Exam 1 Study Guide

World History-Exam 1 Study Guide - Exam 1 Study Guide...

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Exam 1- Study Guide Chapter 1 Domestication: Hunting and gathering bands may have consciously experimented with planting seeds or may have accidentally discovered it Pastoralism: Domestication of animals gave rise to strongest competitor to sedentary agriculture as a way of the world Thrived in semiarid areas incapable of supporting large populations Nomadic, herding way of life Produced independent & hardy peoples with good military skills Jericho: 6500 BC, Jordan River valley Economy based on farming of wheat & barely, relied on hunting and trade Governed by distinct ruling group Catal Huyuk 7000 BC, Southern Turkey More extensive than Jericho Most advanced human center of Neolithic Period More imposing ruling group than Jericho
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Chapter 2 Bantu Migrations: Most important population movement in all human history Migration of speakers of a Niger-Congo language known as proto-Bantu Moved from the forest area along the Nigeria/Cameroon border and gradually spread into almost all of Africa south of the equator Resulted in gigantic area of Africa occupied by speakers of similar languages Took a long time to complete and involved great complexity Appear to have begun in second millennium BC By 1500 CE, Bantu speakers occupied 90% of habitable land south of the equator Growing dryness in Sahara/Sudanic zone after 35000 BC pushed new ways of life southward into areas still only occupied by hunters & gatherers Mesopotamia: Today comprises Iran & Iraq “between two rivers”-Euphrates & Tigris Harsh environment- in the south the soil is fertile but rainfall is nonexistent but in the north soil is poor and rainfall is plentiful Only natural resource is clay Required planning & mobilization of human resources possible only through centralization Sumer Until 3500 BC The inhabitants of the lower Tigris & Euphrates lived in scattered villages & small towns Population in the region known as Sumer began to increase Small settlements became common Developed in part because the need to concentrate and organize population in order to carry on the extensive irrigation systems necessary to support agriculture Towns soon spread control to surrounding areas and fortified themselves against nomadic peoples City became the dominant force in the organization of economy and society Uruk Modern Iraq Small settlement in Sumer began to grow rapidly Between 3500 BC and 3000 BC the population quadrupled from 10 to 40 thousand Epic of Gilgamesh First great heroic poem Composed before 2000 BC
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The hero Gilgamesh boasts of the mighty walls he had built to encircle his city, Uruk Proud of his city, walls were marvels of military engineering Cuneiform: “wedge” Pictograms developed into true system of writing Began to use cuneiform character to represent concepts Implications of the development of cuneiform writing were revolutionary
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