Lecture 01 - Homeostasis and Second Messenger

Lecture 01 - Homeostasis and Second Messenger - Lecture 1...

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Lecture 1 – Homeostasis and Second Messenger Physiology (Online Slide 1) Anatomy 1. Form and structure – heart, kidney tubules, brain 2. Connections – nervous circulatory Chemistry 1. Molecular structure a. Proteins – hemoglobin, contractile, hormone receptors b. Membrane lipids 2. Chemical reactions – enzymes Physical Forces 1. Electrical – nerve impulses, muscle potentials 2. Mechanical – blood pressure, muscle contraction 3. Molecular diffusion Major Cell Types In The Body (Fig 1.2 a,b) 1. Neurons – long and thin; conduct neural potentials 2. Muscle cells – contractile proteins; skeletal, smooth or cardiac muscle cell types 3. Epithelial cells 4. Connective tissue cells Epithelial Cells (Fig 1.2 c, 4.23) 1. Cells designed to form sheets 2. Serve as a barrier between the lumen and the interstitial fluid 3. Form protective barrier from the external world 4. Form tight junctions which serve as fusion such as glue; do not allow for transport 5. Specialized for transport into and out of the body (transmembrane proteins) Connective Tissue (Fig 1.2 d) 1. Contain a scattering of cells immersed in an extracellular matrix a. Blood cells in plasma make up blood b. Cartilage cells in collage make up cartilage c. Fat cells in globules make up fat d. Osteocytes in calcium deposits make up bone Organ Systems (Table 1.1) System Organs/tissues within the system Function Endocrine Hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, pancreas Provide communication between cells of the body through the release of hormones into the bloodstream Nervous Brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves Provide communication between cells of the body through electrical signals and the release of neurotransmitters into small gaps between certain cells Musculoskeletal Skeletal muscle, bones, tendons, ligaments Support the body; allow voluntary movement of the body & facial expressions Cardiovascular Heart, blood vessels, blood Transport molecules throughout body in bloodstream Respiratory Lungs, pharynx, trachea, bronchi Bring oxygen into the body and eliminate carbon dioxide from the body
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