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psych study guide1 & answers

psych study guide1 & answers - EXAM I Concepts...

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EXAM I Concepts : Allport’s def of Social Psychology - Social psychology is the scientific study of how the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others. Levels of analysis: Societal (cultural) – cultural norms, values Inter-Group – Group identity; group norms; small groups research *Interpersonal – How ppl influence/relate to one another (dyads-2); close relationships *Individual – Personality; How ppl think and feel about social world Applied vs. Basic Research: Applied – done to solve a problem - Seek knowledge that addresses socially relevant issues Basic – done to figure something out; just knowledge - conducted for the sake of knowledge alone Father of psychology – Kurt Lewin - Believed in action research - Social progress Correlational vs. Experimental Research: Correlational – examines relationships between variables - Relationship can be positive or negative -> if relationship is stronger than expected by chance alone , found pos. or neg. relationship - Positive: both increase / Negative: one increase, one decreases - Only shows relationship, not what causes what – there might be a 3 rd factor Experimental – Random assignment to conditions - Treatment vs. Control, outcome for each is compared -> treatment can be claimed as cause of any observed difference (effect) Independent vs. Dependent variables: Independent – the variable that is manipulated (casual factor) Dependent – The variable that depends on the IV - the effect you are interested in Experimental vs. Mundane realism: Experimental – the experiment is more involving; make a psychological impact on them Mundane – people do things that are like everyday life Demand characteristics – cues in the experiment that seem to “demand” certain behavior - Experimenters try hide their predictions - Standardize instructions
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Attribution theory – the study of assigning causes to behavior Actor-observer bias : - your behavior is attributed to the situation (S-driven; “external attributions”) - other’s behavior attributed to personality (P-driven; “internal attributions”) Fundamental Attribution Error (FAE): - Just the observer bias part (other’ behavior is their personality) Kelley’s Attribution Theory : - Consistency : How consistent is the person’s behavior in this situation?
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