his 206 notes ch 4 - Chapter 4 Coastal Civilizations of the...

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Chapter 4: Coastal Civilizations of the Eastern Mediterranean (2500-800 BCE) Early Civilizations of the Levant (2500-1500 BCE) Massive exploitation of agriculture and more trade for raw materials Ebla Excavated in 1968 because it was unknown, but the location was given on a tell (an artificial mound created by habitation in the same spot) A Bronze Age commercial center where there was cultural crossroad for Semitics, Sumerians, and Westerners to interact. Government run by aristocratic merchants Trade from the west of the Mediterranean like textiles,, wooden furniture, and timber {“Cedars of Lebanon” YEAH! MY HOMECOUNTRY}. People worshipped gods from Semitic Ba’al to Mesopotamian Ishtar. 2240 BCE-captured and burned by Akkadian king, Naram–Sin, but the city was rebuilt Coastal Commerce 2000 BCE-Byblos, Sidon, and Ugarit = Kinahu as lands bordering the Mediterranean Ugarit is where a writing system was created. Aegean Civilizations (3000-1000 BCE) Seaborne trade routes and specialized trade goods=more economic niches The Minoan Civilization of Crete Minoan Civilization named after the King Minos of Crete Agglutinative style for palaces Crete did not have large river valleys for grain production Imported amber and metal=trade goods 2000-1400 BCE: trading colonies on the Mediterranean was a monopoly Linear A: writing that represented accounts and inventories Cult objects: show they had some religious worship, but more nature-related gods (ex. Labrys-small golden axe). “Lady of the Wild Things”-statue of a goddess for nature No powerful government “throne room” for local administrator Thalassocracy= sea power from Minos, power and tyrannical king of Crete ; Minotaur : bull-headed man that ate human flesh was created from the king’s wife 1400 BCE-Minoan cities destroyed and some later rebuilt. Minoan civilization maybe destroyed by a volcanic explosion on the island of Thera. The Mycenaean Civilization of Greece Linear A replaced by Linear B ; suggested that Greek invaders destroyed Minoans (Helladic Period- 2800-1100 BCE) 1600 BCE rise of the Mycenaean named after the city in Greece, Mycenae.

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