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Unformatted text preview: 0. The representation and processing of information in the mind to:
0. 1. 2. Solve problems Make choices and decisions Reason THINKING The importance of representations
0. Analogical vs. symbolic representations
3. The difference: whether the representation shares some of the object's features
0. Orientation in space (mental rotation) 1. "scannability" (Kosslyn's scanning study) 2. Size (more Kosslyn 4. Analogic representations and the brain
3. Imagery involves some of the same structures as perception (p. 4) The limits of analogic representations
1. Effects of interpretation
5. The rabbit-duck figure (p. 275) 6. Distortions of spatial knowledge (p. 276) 7. Effects of meaning on memory for forms Symbolic Representations
2. Note: Symbolic representations are not necessarily verbal 3. Concepts, networks and propositions
8. Anderson's ACT theory (p. 279) 9. Spreading activation 4. Issues:
10.How are concepts represented in the brain? 11.What are the units in networks? 5. Research suggesting concepts are built around concepts How are concepts represented? Which of the following best fits the category?? What are the units in networks?
6. Concept-like units vs. neuron-like units "distributed" networks (p. 279) in Problem solving: Getting from an initial state to a goal state.
7. The importance of the right representation 8. The case of number scrabble: Try to pick three cards that sum to 15 A good representation (play tic-tack-toe in your head) Types of Problem Representations
9. Analogical represenations (e.g., visual images)
12.The Buddhist Monk problem 10. Symbols
13.The Mary and Susan problem 11. Mary is twice Susan's age minus 10 12. Five years from now, Mary will be 8 years older than Susan at that time. 13. What are their ages now? The Mary and Susan Problem
14. M = 2S 10 15. M+5 = S + 5 + 8 16. 2S 10 + 5 = S + 5 + 8 17. 2S 5 = S + 13 18. 2S = S + 18 19. S = 18 20. M = 2 (18) 10 = 36 10 = 26 More Problem Representations
Diagrams Which is more probable with six flips of a coin: HHHHHH ? HTHHTT ? More Problem Representations
Matrices: The hospital problem The hospital problem
0. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Thomas has asthma Thomas is in room 101 Smith is in room 102 Green is in room 105 The patient with mono is in room 104 Lopez has heard disease Smith has TB Anderson does not have gall bladder disease Lopez=heart, Smith=TB, Anderson not = gall bladder Lopez=heart, Smith=TB, Anderson not = gall bladder Lopez=heart, Smith=TB, Anderson not = gall bladder Lopez=heart, Smith=TB, Anderson not = gall bladder The processes of problem solving:
21. Heuristics vs. Algorithms 22. The problem space and selective search of the space
14.The Tower of Hanoi Subgoaling as selective search The Tower of Hanoi
Search space for the Tower of Hanoi Heuristics
23. Random search
15.Thorndike's puzzle box 24. Hill-climbing
16.Achieving short-term vs. long-term goals 25. Working backwards
17.The water lily problem (p. 285) 26. Means/end (subgoaling heuristics) 18.The hobbits and orcs problem Getting everyone across:
27. The concept of "restructuring" (p. 287) Solving insight problems: 19. Khler's studies with chimps 20. The nine-dot & matchstick problems (p. 282,285) 21. The horse and rider problem (p. 285, 287) Khler's problem-solving apes
Characteristics of insight problems:
28. Verbalization can hurt. 29. Verbalization can miss things: The unconscious use of hints in the Maier String problem 30. Functional fixedness Factors that limit problem-solving
22. The Candle (and Maier string) problem. 31. Functional fixedness 32. Mental set Factors that limit problem-solving
23. The Candle (and Maier string) problem. 24. The water-jug problem (p. 284) How would you use pails A, B & C to get the desired amount of water? 33. Functional fixedness 34. Mental set Factors that limit problem-solving
25. The Candle (and Maier string) problem. 26. The water-jug problem (p. 284) 35. Failures to find an appropriate analogy 27. The Duncker tumor problem (p. 286) The Duncker tumor problem An analog to the tumor problem
Analogy and problem isomorphs.
36. The difficulty of using analogies
28.The Glick and Holyoak studies 29.The lesson: People are often poor at thinking of useful analogs
4. Surface versus deep structure of problem situations 37. How to benefit from analogies?
30.Compare isomorphs & look for structural similarities Creativity and Incubation
Incubation: Poincar's reminiscence Failures of experiments to support the incubation hypothesis
38. The Silveira (1971) study
31.A man had 4 chains, 32.Each 3 links long 33.Opening a link costs 2 cents 34.Closing a link costs 3 cents 35.The man had his four chains joined to form a closed chain for 15 cents 36.How did he do it? The Solution
39. OOO 40. 41. OOO 42. C OOO C C C C C OOO (9 cents) (6 cents) Results
43. Control group: 50% solution 44. 30 minute break group: 64% solution 45. 4 hour break group: 85% solution 46. But, subjects did not return with insights Alternatives to the unconscious thought hypothesis:
47. Fatigue 48. Forgetting of inappropriate sets 49. Additional (conscious but forgotten ) thought 50. Chance occurrence (a new retrieval cue) 51. The classic DeGroot studies of chess: Chunks in chess Effects of Expertise (p. 283) What makes chess masters so good? Effects of Expertise (p. 283) 37. Higher-order patterns and strategic grouping 38. Cross-referenced knowledge 39. Automatized subroutines 52. Deductive reasoning: From the general to the specific . . .
40. Syllogisms (p. 290) 41. Conditional (if-then) reasoning
5. Affirming the antecedent and denying the consequent 6. The importance of schemas: The Wason card task. Reasoning Conditional reasoning (p. 291)
53. Identify the antecedent & consequent:
42.Antecedent: "If the switch is turned on. . ." 43.Consequent: "then the light will go on." 54. Then assess whether the second statement affirms or denies the antecedent or consequent
44."The light does not go on" denies the consequent When a valid conclusion can be drawn:
The Card Selection Task: Check out this rule: "If a card has a vowel on one side, it has an even number on the other." Check out this rule: "If a person is drinking beer, they must be 21 years of age." An Hypothesis:
55. Pragmatic reasoning schemas
45.Learned from experience or genetically prewired? Induction (p. 293)
56. Going from specific observations to a make a general claim 57. Going from a set of observations to predict a particular case
46.e.g., judging probabilities or frequencies 8. Availability (p. 293) Heuristics in induction 0. Buying flood insurance and estimating causes of death 1. The "R-word" experiment 2. The prison guard experiment 3. Audition/performance discrepancies (Nisbett's research on what taking statistics can do) 4. In the card selection task and in science 9. Representativeness (p. 296) 10. Confirmation Bias (p. 296): 58. Framing effects (p. 300-01):
47. Aversion to loss 48. The optimistic view: Making other decisions and choices 59. Are we rational decision makers?
7. People sometimes avoid using poor heuristics 8. We have mathematical and logical tools that keep us away from error 9. Sometimes being rational is good (even rational?) Executive control and consciousness 60. Is there one executive" 3 or 4?" or many? 61. Do people differ in executive control
49.Operation span and cognition (p. 303) 62. Consciousness and its purpose
50.Since many processes are not conscious (or need not be) . . .what is consciousness for? 51.And how does it work (the face-house study)? 52.And shy is conscious experience unitary? ...
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- Spring '08