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review question for chapters 6,7,8,9,14

review question for chapters 6,7,8,9,14 - Psy 2301...

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Psy 2301 – Introductory Psychology – Spring, 2008 Review Questions for Exam # 2: Chapters 6, 7, 8, 9 and 14 1. What is habituation? What is dishabituation? 2. Describe the phenomena of generalization, discrimination, and extinction in classical (Pavlovian) conditioning. 3. Give an example of how a conditioned stimulus can become associated with a conditioned response. Include a discussion of the learning curve as well as the relation between the conditioned response and the unconditioned response. 4. How have psychologists studied conditioned fear (or conditioned emotional responses)? 5. What was Thorndyke’s “Law of Effect?” What was the experiment he used to support it? 6. Summarize the ways that operant conditioning differs from classical (Pavlovian) conditioning. 7. Explain the difference between negative reinforcement, positive punishment and negative punishment. Give an example. 8. Describe the four major schedules of reinforcement and the patterns of behavior they can support. 9. Discuss the importance of behavioral contrast and secondary reinforcers in operant conditioning. How do these factors apply to child-rearing? 10. Explain how shaping works in the training of animals. 11. Discuss the importance of contingency (as opposed to contiguity) in both classical conditioning and operant conditioning. 12. Discuss Tolman’s ideas of latent learning and cognitive maps. 13. How is research on “belongingness” and acquired taste aversion at odds with the traditional theories of learning? 14. Discuss the evidence for species-specific, specialized, forms of learning.
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