PhilRel - notes - day16-hell

PhilRel - notes - day16-hell - HELL Is it compatible with...

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Unformatted text preview: HELL Is it compatible with God's goodness? A "moral argument" for HELL "I pray with all my heart that the people who deliberately hurt people get punished. I would sit in depression if I truly believed that the torturers and their victims have the same fate..." Dennis Prager Bad people should get what's coming to them 1. God is just. 2. So God gives people what they deserve. 3. Some people deserve to be in hell. 4. Therefore, God puts some people in hell. On this view, the point of hell is punishment, and it is required by perfect justice. What's the point of punishment? Protecting other people? Reform? Retribution? Obviously, Prager is thinking exclusively in terms of retribution. Who deserves to go to hell? Bad people? Moral monsters? People who have rejected God's offer of salvation? Unbelievers? Everyone? Does anyone deserve everlasting punishment? St. Augustine All human beings are guilty of rebellion against God. All are therefore guilty of an infinite offense. All deserve to spend eternity in hell. Jonathan Edwards (17031758) "[Sinful humans] deserve to be cast into hell... Justice calls aloud for an infinite punishment of their sins." Jonathan Edwards (17031758) "[Sinful humans] deserve to be cast into hell... Justice calls aloud for an infinite punishment of their sins." "The God that holds you over the pit of hell, much as one holds a spider or some loathsome insect over the fire, abhors you, and is dreadfully provoked ... You are ten thousand times so abominable in his eyes as the most hateful venomous serpent is in ours." "Natural men are held in the hand of God over the pit of hell; ... the devil is waiting for them, hell is gaping for them, the flames gather and flash about them, and would fain lay hold on them." "All that preserves them is the mere arbitrary will, and unconvenanted unobliged forebearance of an incensed God." John Hick (1922 ) "... misery which is eternal and therefore infinite would constitute the largest part of the problem of evil." John Hick (1922 ) "The sufferings of the damned in hell, since they are interminable, can never lead to any constructive end beyond themselves and are thus the very type of ultimately wasted and pointless anguish. Indeed misery which is eternal and therefore infinite would constitute the largest part of the problem of evil. "... in a universe that permanently contained sin, ... God's creation would be perpetually shadowed and spoiled by evil; and this would be incompatible either with God's sovereignty or with His perfect goodness." Stephen Davis Russell K Pitzer Professor of Philosophy Claremont McKenna College Stephen Davis Russell K Pitzer Professor of Philosophy Claremont McKenna College A Free Will Defense for hell "Why are the damned in hell? ... I believe they are in hell because they choose to be in hell; no one is sent to hell against his or her will." "Sadly, some people choose to live their lives apart from God, harden their hearts, and will continue to do so after death; some will doubtless do so forever..." Separation and free will "Why are the damned in hell? ... I believe they are in hell because they choose to be in hell; no one is sent to hell against his or her will." Stephen Davis A "natural consequence" of sin "Sadly, some people choose to live their lives apart from God, harden their hearts, and will continue to do so after death; some will doubtless do so forever..." Stephen Davis "The doors of hell are locked on the inside." C.S. Lewis A "natural consequence" of sin "Sadly, some people choose to live their lives apart from God, harden their hearts, and will continue to do so after death; some will doubtless do so forever. For such people, living in God's presence might well seem worse than living in God's absence. Allowing them to live forever in hell is simply God's continuing to grant them the freedom that they enjoyed in this life to say yes or no to God." Stephen Davis "The doors of hell are locked on the inside." C.S. Lewis The nature of HELL (according to Davis) Not a place with literal fire or torture where God "gets even." sm i But the damned are "largely miserable," on g since they are separated from the Source of ti n "true love, joy, peace, and light." ra vi a lo They see their situation for what it is, and ep d S n they are filled with "remorse." a st Nevertheless, they choose to remain in hell Ju because they know that they would be even more miserable in heaven. Contrast Universalism Every created person will eventually be brought into God's Kingdom and "will live eternally with God." Davis's replies to some arguments for universalism The Universalist says God's purposes can't be frustrated. It would be unjust to condemn anyone to eternal torment. Hell would spoil heaven. Davis replies God's good purposes can be frustrated by his creatures. The damned freely choose to remain in hell. God won't let hell spoil heaven. Jonathan Edwards: What about the fate of the Maybe they get to make a better ignorant? "The heavenly inhabitants ... will have no love nor pity to the informed choice after death. damned.... it is not fit that they should love [them] because Second chances? Maybe for some they will know then, that God has no love to them, nor pity for them." Responses to universalist arguments The NT teaches separationism, not universalism. God's good purposes can be frustrated by his creatures. Since the damned freely choose to remain in hell, God is both just and loving in giving them their wish. God won't let hell spoil heaven. (But Davis doesn't "The heavenly inhabitants ... will have no love nor pity to the know how this will be accomplished.) damned.... it is not fit that they should love [them] because Contrast this with Jonathan Edwards: they will know then, that God has no love to them, nor pity for them." Contrast Jonathan Edwards "The heavenly inhabitants ... will have no love nor pity to the damned.... it is not fit that they should love [them] because they will know then, that God has no love to them, nor pity for them." Contrast Jonathan Edwards "The seeing of the calamities of others tends to heighten the sense of our own enjoyments. When the saints in glory, therefore, shall see the doleful state of the damned, how will this heighten their sense of the blessedness of their own state.... When they shall see how miserable others of their fellowcreatures are ... when they shall see the smoke of their torment ... and hear their dolorous shrieks and cries, and consider that they in the mean time are in the most blissful state, and shall surely be in it to all eternity; how they will rejoice!" Responses to universalist arguments The NT teaches separationism, not universalism. God's good purposes can be frustrated by his creatures. Since the damned freely choose to remain in hell, God is both just and loving in giving them their wish. God won't let hell spoil heaven. (But Davis doesn't know how this will be accomplished.) A speculation about the "fate of the ignorant." Some worries Would any wellinformed person freely choose eternal misery? Do the damned still have a choice? A dilemma. Yes? Then why don't they choose to be reconciled to God? No? Then why doesn't God fix their wills so that they can? Freedom isn't allornothing. Is the freedom to damn oneself a good thing? ...
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