MUSC131 Chapters 5-10

MUSC131 Chapters 5-10 - Music Appreciation Chapters 5-10...

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Music Appreciation Chapters 5-10 28/09/2006 10:15:00 Chapter 5: The Middle Ages 400-1400 Two central principles of later Western music originated around the middle  ages:  tune and polyphony The Christian Church determined music: composers in holy orders—monks  and clerics, church choirboys received training, etc. o Music cultivated was singing or chanting of sacred words Plainchant - official music of the Catholic Church and Middle Ages o Widely known as  Gregorian chant-  served a higher purpose than  enjoyment—Pope Gregory the Great (6 th  c. CE) collected chants of the  church Nonmetrical - no clearly established meter; therefore, the  rhythm is free Not construed in the major/minor system, but according to one  of the  medieval modes-  numbers or greek names Harmony cannot be applied Form depends on the words Texture is  monophonic o Gregorian Recitation Pitch on which the text is sung, called the  reciting tone , is held  except for small variations at beginnings and end of phrases o Gregorian melody Antiphon is a genre of plainchant Instrumental  drone-  a single two-note chord running  continuously  Troubadour and Trouvere Songs o poet-composers of songs who also performed the songs themselves- noble classes Troubadours  in the south of France
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Bernart de Ventadorm was one of the finest troubadour  poets Trouveres - in the north Minnesingers - in Germany o Jongleurs - composed music, popular musicians, lower class, not highly  respected o Estampie - Medieval dances from court circles, unassuming one-line  pieces in which similar musical phrases are repeated many times in  varied forms—lively and insistent rhythms in triple meter Evolution of Polyphony o Polyphony - simultaneous combination of two or more melodies Seen as a way of embellishing Gregorian chants—enhance  church services- Notre Dame School o Organum - earliest type of polyphony  Consists of traditional plainchant melody to which a  composer/singer/improviser has added another melody in  counterpoint, such simultaneously to the same words o Motet - upper lines given their own words o Perotin - composer from Notre Dame school- organum Other class notes—instruments o Recorder- soprano, alto, tenor o Ox horn- natural objects found in nature, limited range o Obo, flute- keys  o Lute- most important string instrument of Medieval o People played many instruments- no specialization o Rauschpfeife- loud pipe o Krummhorn- reed enclosed, inspired from bagpipes “capped reed  instrument”
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Music Appreciation Chapters 5-10 28/09/2006 10:15:00 Chapter 6: The Renaissance 1400-1600 Renaissance “rebirth,”  began in Italy, laid groundwork for the dynamic world 
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2008 for the course MUSC 131 taught by Professor ? during the Fall '07 term at CofC.

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MUSC131 Chapters 5-10 - Music Appreciation Chapters 5-10...

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