Animal Behavior notes

Animal Behavior notes - Animal Behavior\Proximate vs...

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Animal Behavior 24/03/2008 12:35:00 \Proximate vs. Ultimate Proximate-How Ultimate- Why Why does a dog spin around before laying down to sleep? Proximate- Musculature Energy Knowledge Instincts Ultimate- Assess bedding Adjust bedding to make sure it’s warm Checking for dangerous animals Dislodge insects?
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The Evolution of Behavior We’ve already identified some behaviors that have genetic origins If there are genetically based differences in behavior And These differences affect fitness Then Behaviors can evolve by natural selection Behaviors that are beneficial for the individual are more successful from an  evolutionary standpoint than behaviors that benefit the group (group selection) Infanticide revisited (langurs) If we look closer into it, this time from the female’s standpoint.  Females Waste energy- Produces offspring that are killed- lost energy Produces another litter- additional energy Birthing episodes are vulnerable Birthing episodes are physically risky
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Gaining -protection -genetically superior offspring -social setting So her reproductive output is greater than if she would leave the group with the  displaced male If she leaves her young she won’t benefit from the group environment -hunting -protection -baby sitting Evolution of behaviors Diff selection pressures Diff genes Deff behaviors Garter snake Evolutionary basis for behaviors exhibited -one clear (coastal had slugs which are better/more plentiful prey) -one not (banana slugs like leeches…not!)
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Can divide evolution into two parts macro and micro evolution Domestication Making an animal more or less dependent on humans Controal all aspects of life in animals -food -shelter -mates -territory selective breeding for certain traits  artificial selection -useful traits- herding dogs, hunting dogs, fatter steers -Aesthetic traits-stronger jaws, intelligence, curly hair, soft fur artifacts of artificial selection -increased aggression
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-dysfunctional morphology as a function of aesthetics The pug Macroevolution -fossil evidence -adaptive radiation -phylogenetic reconstruction -speciation 1. Fossil Evidence Dinosaur nests Non-maternal – reptilian Maternal – some birds Arrangement of eggs suggests parental manipulation Bones of hoof stock  Lineage of early to modern horses Increased length of leg bones  Increased mass of jawbones 
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Nomadic species
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Animal Behavior notes - Animal Behavior\Proximate vs...

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