History Test Review - Kansas-Nebraska Act The Kansas...

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Kansas-Nebraska Act The Kansas Nebraska act was an 1854 bill that mandated “popular sovereignty” allowing settlers of a territory to decide whether slavery would be allowed within a new state’s borders. Proposed by Stephen A. Douglas, Abraham Lincoln’s opponent in the influential Lincoln-Douglas debates, the bill overturned the Missouri compromises’ use of latitude as the boundary between slave territory and free territory. The conflict that arouse between pro slavery and anti-slavery settlers in the aftermath of the act’ passage led to the period of violence known as Bleeding Kansas, and helped pave the way for the American Civil War (1861-1865). On January 4, 1854, Stephan A. Douglas, wanting to ensure a northern transcontinental railroad route that would benefit his Illinois constituents, introduced a bill to organize the territory of Nebraska in order to bring the area under civil control. But the southern senators objected; the region lay north of latitude 36, 30 and so under the terms of the Missouri compromise of 1820 would become a free state. To gain the southerners’ support, Douglas proposed creating two territories in the area Kansas and Nebraska and repealing the Missouri compromise line. The question of whether the territories would be slave or free would be left to the settles under Douglas’s principle of popular sovereignty. Presumably, the more northern territory would oppose slavery while the more southern one would permit it. Compromise of 1850 Divisions of the slavery in territory gained in the Mexican American war were resolved in the compromise of 1850. The compromise of 1850 consisted of laws admitting California as a free state, creating New Mexico and Utah territories with the question of slavery in each to be determined by popular sovereignty. This settled a Texas/ New Mexico boundary dispute, ended slave trade in Washington D.C., and made it easier for southerners to recover fugitive slaves. The compromise was the last major involvement in national affairs of Senators Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and John C. Calhoun, all of whom had exceptional careers. Calhoun passed away in 1850, and clay and Webster passed away 2 years later. Dred Scott v Sanford This was a Supreme Court case that involved a slave named Dred Scott. Dred Scott was a slave for a medical doctor and he had been taken to Minnesota. But under the Missouri compromise, Minnesota was supposed to be a free state not a slave state. Dred Scott went back to Missouri where the medical doctor died and his widowed wife inherited his money. She got involved with Sanford who was an abolitionists and he did not want to own a slave. He wanted Dred Scott to sue him on the basis that he had been held illegally in a free state before returning to the slave state of Missouri. The case went to the Supreme Court and Dred Scott argued that the time he spent in that location entitled him to emancipation. Chief justice Roger B. Taney disagreed and said “for one to sue, he or she must be a citizen of the U.S.” the U.S. constitution however, doesn’t state who or what a citizen is, it just says we the

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