Proteins: Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary Stucture

Proteins: Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary Stucture -...

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Chapter 10 Gases
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Gases Substances that are gaseous under normal conditions (1 atm, 25 °C) including elements and small molecules (especially those that contain H, O, or F.
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Examples of Gaseous Elements Monatomic Gases — He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn (the noble gases) Diatomic Gases — H 2 , N 2 , O 2 , F 2 , Cl 2 Triatomic Gas — O 3 (ozone)
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Gases Containing Hydrogen B 2 H 6 CH 4 * NH 3 H 2 O HF SiH 4 PH 3 H 2 S HCl GeH 4 AsH 3 H 2 Se HBr HI also HCN 1 2
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Gases Containing Oxygen or Fluorine Non-metallic Oxides : CO N 2 O SO 2 ClO 2 CO 2 NO NO 2 Non-metallic Fluorides : BF 3 CF 4 NF 3 OF 2 SiF 4 PF 3 SF 2 ClF PF 5 SF 4 SF 6
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Characteristics of Gases Unlike liquids and solids, gases expand to fill their containers. Gases are highly compressible Gases have extremely low densities (STP) Gases have neither fixed volumes or shapes
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Volume of Gases The volume of a gas is defined by the space it occupies. So – the volume of the gas equals the volume of the container it is stored in COMMON UNITS 1 L = 1 dm 3 (L = liter) 1 cm 3 (cc) = 1 mL (mL = milliliter) 1 L = 1000 mL = 1000 cc
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Pressure is the amount of force applied to an area . Pressure Atmospheric pressure is the weight of air per unit of area. P = F A
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Units of Pressure mm Hg or torr These units are literally the difference in the heights measured in mm ( h ) of two connected columns of mercury . Atmosphere 1.00 atm = 760 mm Hg = 760 torr
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SI Units of Pressure Pascals 1 Pa = 1 N/m 2 where N is a Newton (the SI unit of force) which is equal to 1 kg∙m/s 2 1 atm = 1.01325 x 10 5 Pa = 101.325 kPa Bar 1 bar = 10 5 Pa = 100 kPa
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Atmospheric Pressure P = F A
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Calculation of Atmospheric Pressure (in SI Units) Pressure = Force / Area P = [mass (m) × acceleration ( g ) ] / Area P = [kg × (m/s 2 )] / (m 2 ) or: [N]/ m 2 For the atmosphere ( very approximately ): Mass = 1 × 10 4 kg; g = 9.8 m/s 2 ; A = 1 m 2 P = (1 × 10 4 kg)(9.8 m/s 2 ) / (1 m 2 ) P = 1×10 5 kg/(m.s) = 1×10 5 N/m 2 = 1×10 5 Pa SI unit of Force = Newton (N) = 1 kg m/s 2 SI unit of Pressure = Pascal (Pa) = 1 N/m 2
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Manometer Used to measure the difference in pressure between atmospheric pressure and that of a gas in a vessel.
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Standard Pressure Normal atmospheric pressure at sea level. It is equal to 1 atm ( exactly ) 760 torr (760 mm Hg) - exactly 101.325 kPa
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Standard Pressure and Temperature (STP) 1 atm Pressure & 0 °C
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Boyle’s Law The volume of a fixed quantity of gas at constant temperature is inversely proportional to the pressure, or V 1 / P. PV = k and P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 .
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and V Are Inversely Proportional A plot of V versus P results in a curve. Since
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Proteins: Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary Stucture -...

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