Differenct Styles of Civilization

Differenct Styles of Civilization - 6 Different Styles of...

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1 6. Different Styles of Civilization Mesopotamia and Egypt
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2 Outline 1) L or U (continued) 2) Causes of the first states: geography of the Civilization Trap 3) Mesopotamia and Egypt Similarities Differences
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3 L or U?
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4 Pluses of H-G societies 1) relative equality, including gender equality 2) democratic organization 3) harmony with nature --But recall ecological catastrophe at end of last ice age. Are we returning to these features?
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5 Minuses of hunter-gatherer communities 1) Small groups divided from one another Sporadic wars 2) Simple technology
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6 Pluses of “civilization” 1) Unifies people into larger and larger groups 2) Development of technology (often through requirements of warfare) Technology can save nature—as in the Global Warming Catastrophe of 11,000 BCE
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Minuses of Civilization Unification takes place through wars, trade (greed) War is systematic, not sporadic Social-economic, ethnic, gender inequalities The state as instrument of power separated from people Technology as a means of enrichment overlooks destructive effects 7
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8 What caused the “fall”? Rise of the hierarchical state – 1) requirements of large populations? – 2) military necessity? – 3) requirements for organizing irrigation  systems?  – 4) exploitation of the majority by a  minority?
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9 Why do people tolerate this? (1) Religious persuasion (2) Military force (3) Geographical conditions
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10 (1) Religious revolution Because of religion? Kings are god-like Gilgamesh: 2/3 god Pharaoh: 3/3 god (Why is Pharaoh more god-like?) Animism > anthropomorphic polytheism
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Differenct Styles of Civilization - 6 Different Styles of...

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