Trial and Death of Socrates

Trial and Death of Socrates - Trial and Death of Socrates...

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Trial and Death of Socrates What is its historical significance? 1
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Lecture outline Evolution of Greek religion Kinds of love: 1) Plato’s universal love 2) Aristophanes’ Soulmate love 3) Alcibiades’ egotistical love Allegory of the Cave: wealth and virtue Historical Justification of Socrates Argument of the Crito: your true parents? 2
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Plato and the evolution of Greek religion 1) Animism of ancient memory: divine is everywhere 2) Anthropomorphic polytheism Frozen through power of Homeric poetry and division of city-states 3) Shift to philosophy: using one’s own reason to discover truth. Plato: The Divine One as the ultimate Source of love, truth, goodness all around us (recalls animism) “Philosophical monotheism” 3
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4 From Religion to Philosophy Socrates: Is something good because the gods command it, or do the gods command it because it is good? (Euthyphro) Socrates/Plato replace focus on religious authority with philosophy: people have to think for themselves about what is good. Is this “impiety” to the gods? Atheism?
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Plato’s Symposium Parts of the “Symposium” 1) Socrates on Diotema’s teaching regarding the nature of love 2) Soulmate love: speech of Aristophanes 3) Alcibiades speech about Socrates =Plato defends Socrates against the charge of corrupting Alcibiades 5
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Who taught whom? ? > Socrates > Plato > Aristotle > Stoics > 6
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1) Who was Socrates’ teacher? Socrates: Diotema of Mantineia, a woman wise in this and in many other kinds of knowledge, who in the days of old, when the Athenians offered sacrifice before the coming of the plague, delayed the disease ten years. She was my instructress in the art of love . . . 7
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Diotema’s Philosophy 101 Diotema: “For he who would proceed aright in this matter should begin in youth to visit beautiful forms; and first, if he be guided by his instructor aright, to love one such form only -- out of that he should create fair thoughts; 8
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Upper division philosophy [ 210b ] and soon he will of himself perceive that the beauty of one form is akin to the beauty of another; and then if beauty of form in general is his pursuit, how foolish would he be not to recognize that the beauty in every form is one and the same! 9
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How to overcome violence of love And when he perceives this he will abate his violent love of the one, which he will despise and deem a small thing, and will become a lover of all beautiful forms; in the next stage he will consider that the beauty of the mind is more honourable than the beauty of the outward form. ... 10
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Love of the laws So that if a virtuous soul have but a little comeliness, he will be content to love and tend him, and will search out and bring to the birth thoughts which may improve the young, until he is compelled to contemplate and see the beauty of institutions and laws, and to understand that the beauty of them all is of one family, and that personal beauty is a trifle; 11
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This note was uploaded on 04/06/2008 for the course UGC 111 taught by Professor Bono during the Spring '08 term at SUNY Buffalo.

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Trial and Death of Socrates - Trial and Death of Socrates...

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