Chapter 3 - Stoichiometry

Chapter 3 - Stoichiometry - Chapter 3 Stoichiometry:...

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Chapter 3 Stoichiometry: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations
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Law of Conservation of Mass “We may lay it down as an incontestable axiom that, in all the operations of art and nature, nothing is created; an equal amount of matter exists both before and after the experiment. Upon this principle, the whole art of performing chemical experiments depends.” --Antoine Lavoisier, 1789 Balancing Equations!
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Chemical Equations Concise representations of chemical reactions
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Anatomy of a Chemical Equation CH 4 ( g ) + 2 O 2 ( g ) CO 2 ( g ) + 2 H 2 O ( g )
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Anatomy of a Chemical Equation Reactants appear on the left side of the equation. CH 4 ( g ) + 2 O 2 ( g ) CO 2 ( g ) + 2 H 2 O ( g )
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Anatomy of a Chemical Equation Products appear on the right side of the equation. CH 4 ( g ) + 2 O 2 ( g ) CO 2 ( g ) + 2 H 2 O ( g )
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Anatomy of a Chemical Equation The states of the reactants and products are written in parentheses to the right of each compound. CH 4 ( g ) + 2 O 2 ( g ) CO 2 ( g ) + 2 H 2 O ( g )
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Anatomy of a Chemical Equation Coefficients are inserted to balance the equation. CH 4 ( g ) + 2 O 2 ( g ) CO 2 ( g ) + 2 H 2 O ( g )
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Subscripts and Coefficients Give Different Information Subscripts tell the number of atoms of each element in a molecule. You may NEVER change the subscripts to balance an equation!!! Coefficients tell the number of molecules. You can always change the coefficients to balance an equation.
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Balancing Simple Equations Rule # 1: You can always change the number in front of an element, molecule, or ion. Rule # 2: You can NEVER change the subscripts within the formula of an element, molecule, or ion! This changes the compound to a different species. 2 2 2 2 2 2 You can always change the number in front of an
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Balancing Simple Equations 3 3 2
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Combination Reactions 2 Mg ( s ) + O 2 ( g ) → 2 MgO ( s ) Other examples: 2 2 3 Two or more substances reac to form one product Element 1 + Element 2 Compound Molecule 1 + Molecule 2 Larger Molecule
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2 Mg( s ) + O ( g ) → 2 MgO( s )
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Decomposition Reactions 2 NaN 3 ( s ) 2 Na ( s ) + 3 N 2 ( g ) Also: 2 One substance breaks down into two or more substances
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Chapter 3 - Stoichiometry - Chapter 3 Stoichiometry:...

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