Solutions - Solutions: Homogeneous mixtures of two or more...

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Solutions: Homogeneous mixtures of two or more pure substances. The solvent is present in greatest abundance. All other substances are solutes.
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Dissociation When an ionic substance dissolves in water, the solvent pulls the individual ions from the crystal and solvates them. This process is called dissociation.
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Electrolytes and Non-electrolytes Electrolytes are substances that dissociate into ions when dissolved in water. The cations and anions formed enable the solution to conduct electrical current
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Electrolytes and Non-electrolytes Non-electrolytes may dissolve in water, but do not dissociate into ions. Non-electrolytes do not conduct electricity through the solution.
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Electrolytes and Non-electrolytes Soluble ionic compounds act as electrolytes.
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Electrolytes and Non-electrolytes Molecular compounds tend to be non- electrolytes (except for those which are acids or bases). They do not conduct electricity when dissolved in water.
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Electrolytes A strong electrolyte dissociates completely when dissolved in water; solutions readily conduct electricity. A weak electrolyte dissociates only partially when dissolved in water; solutions conduct electricity less well than those of strong electrolytes.
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Strong Electrolytes The following classes of compound behave as strong electrolytes (1) Strong Acids (2) Strong Bases (3) Soluble Ionic Salts Details follow---
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Strong Electrolytes are… (1) Strong acids
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Strong Electrolytes are… Strong acids (2) Strong bases
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Strong Electrolytes are… Strong acids, Strong bases, (3) Soluble ionic salts
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Examples of Weak Electrolytes Weak acids ( only partially dissociated ) such as acetic acid (CH 3 COOH) CH 3 COOH ( aq ) H + ( aq ) + CH 3 COO - ( aq ) Weak bases ( only partially dissociated ) such as ammonia (NH 3 ) NH 3 ( aq ) + H 2 O ( l ) NH 4 + ( aq ) + OH - ( aq )
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Examples of Non-Electrolytes Molecular solids: Glucose, C 6 H 12 O 6 Sucrose, C 12 H 22 O 11 (what you put in your coffee) Molecular Liquids: Ethanol, C 2 H 5 OH Acetone, (CH 3 ) 2 CO Octane, C 8 H 20 , component of gasoline
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Exchange (Metathesis) Reactions Metathesis reactions involve swapping ions in solution: AX + BY AY + BX. Metathesis reactions will lead to a change in solution from any of three “driving forces” an insoluble solid is formed ( precipitate ) weak or non-electrolytes are formed an insoluble gas is formed Precipitation Reactions Precipitation Reactions
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The Reaction of K 2 CrO 4 ( aq ) and Ba(NO 3 ) 2 ( aq ) K 2 CrO 4 ( aq ) + Ba(NO 3 ) 2 ( aq ) BaCrO 4 (s) + 2KNO 3 ( aq )
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When one mixes ions that form compounds that are insoluble (as could be predicted by solubility guidelines), a precipitate is formed. In the illustration, yellow
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This note was uploaded on 04/06/2008 for the course CHE 101 taught by Professor Churchhill during the Spring '08 term at SUNY Buffalo.

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Solutions - Solutions: Homogeneous mixtures of two or more...

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