{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

Solutions - Solutions Homogeneous mixtures of two or more...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–19. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Solutions: Homogeneous mixtures of two or more pure substances. The solvent is present in greatest abundance. All other substances are solutes.
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Dissociation When an ionic substance dissolves in water, the solvent pulls the individual ions from the crystal and solvates them. This process is called dissociation.
Image of page 2
Electrolytes and Non-electrolytes Electrolytes are substances that dissociate into ions when dissolved in water. The cations and anions formed enable the solution to conduct electrical current
Image of page 3

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Electrolytes and Non-electrolytes Non-electrolytes may dissolve in water, but do not dissociate into ions. Non-electrolytes do not conduct electricity through the solution.
Image of page 4
Electrolytes and Non-electrolytes Soluble ionic compounds act as electrolytes.
Image of page 5

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Electrolytes and Non-electrolytes Molecular compounds tend to be non- electrolytes (except for those which are acids or bases). They do not conduct electricity when dissolved in water.
Image of page 6
Electrolytes A strong electrolyte dissociates completely when dissolved in water; solutions readily conduct electricity. A weak electrolyte dissociates only partially when dissolved in water; solutions conduct electricity less well than those of strong electrolytes.
Image of page 7

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Strong Electrolytes The following classes of compound behave as strong electrolytes (1) Strong Acids (2) Strong Bases (3) Soluble Ionic Salts Details follow---
Image of page 8
Strong Electrolytes are… (1) Strong acids
Image of page 9

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Strong Electrolytes are… Strong acids (2) Strong bases
Image of page 10
Strong Electrolytes are… Strong acids, Strong bases, (3) Soluble ionic salts
Image of page 11

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Examples of Weak Electrolytes Weak acids ( only partially dissociated ) such as acetic acid (CH 3 COOH) CH 3 COOH ( aq ) H + ( aq ) + CH 3 COO - ( aq ) Weak bases ( only partially dissociated ) such as ammonia (NH 3 ) NH 3 ( aq ) + H 2 O ( l ) NH 4 + ( aq ) + OH - ( aq )
Image of page 12
Examples of Non-Electrolytes Molecular solids: Glucose, C 6 H 12 O 6 Sucrose, C 12 H 22 O 11 (what you put in your coffee) Molecular Liquids: Ethanol, C 2 H 5 OH Acetone, (CH 3 ) 2 CO Octane, C 8 H 20 , component of gasoline
Image of page 13

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Exchange (Metathesis) Reactions Metathesis reactions involve swapping ions in solution: AX + BY AY + BX. Metathesis reactions will lead to a change in solution from any of three “driving forces” an insoluble solid is formed ( precipitate ) weak or non-electrolytes are formed an insoluble gas is formed Precipitation Reactions Precipitation Reactions
Image of page 14
The Reaction of K 2 CrO 4 ( aq ) and Ba(NO 3 ) 2 ( aq ) K 2 CrO 4 ( aq ) + Ba(NO 3 ) 2 ( aq ) BaCrO 4 (s) + 2KNO 3 ( aq )
Image of page 15

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Precipitation Reactions When one mixes ions that form compounds that are insoluble (as could be predicted by solubility guidelines), a precipitate is formed. In the illustration, yellow insoluble PbI 2 is formed when a solution of KI is added to a solution of Pb(NO 3 ) 2
Image of page 16
Metathesis (Exchange) Reactions Metathesis comes from a Greek word that means “to transpose” The ions in the reactant compounds exchange, or transpose, ions Ag NO ( aq ) + K Cl ( aq ) →
Image of page 17

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Solution Chemistry
Image of page 18
Image of page 19
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern