28.3 Notes - 28.3 The War I Introduction A By August 1914...

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28.3 The War I. Introduction A. By August 1914 the major powers of Europe had lined up against eachother. a. Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria became known as the Central Powers. b. Great Britain, France, Russia, Serbia, Belgium. Japan, and Montenegro were the Allies. c. Claiming that Austria-Hungary and Germany acted offensively, Italy remained neutral. II. The Schlieffen Plan A. Germany’s invasion of Belgium on August 3 had been part of the Schlieffen Plan, a war strategy that German General Alfred von Schlieffen drew up in 1905. a. Germany had a problem- it had enemies in the east and the west. b. Shlieffen assumed Russia would be slow to mobilize. c. He believed Germans could go off to Paris and defeat them in six weeks, then move onto the eastern front and fight Russia. B. Schlieffen’s plan ran into problems from the beginning. a. Commander Helmuth von Moltke ran his troops through an area of Belgium that was heavily fortified. b. Moltke encountered far stronger resistance than anyone had expected; the advance was delayed until August 20. c. The Russians, in fact, moved swiftly, causing more Germans to be sent to the eastern front. C. The Germans were held up further when they met British forces in the north of France. a. Eventually, the British troops did retreat, but they fought well and Germans suffered heavily. b. The French were also attacking Germany at Alsace-Lorraine. c. The French eventually collapsed but they, too, set the Germans back. 1. The Battle of the Marne A. France Struggled to recover after the defeat at Alsace-Lorraine. a. The French Chief, General Joseph Jacques Joffre, pulled back troops to Paris. b. While many Parisians fled, the General strengthened the army in Paris until it could launch a counter-attack. c. To further enable better offense, the General taxed Paris citizens severely. B. On September 5 the French and German armies collided in northeastern France in the Battle of the Marne.
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