26.5 - I. II. III. Austria-Hungary's Decline 1. In the...

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I. Austria-Hungary’s Decline 1. In the early 1800s, in addition to Russia and the Ottoman Empire, there was a third dominant power in eastern Europe: Austria. a. The Austrian Empire at this time contained more than 11 different national groups, including the Germans of Austria and the Magyars of Hungary 2. Like Russia, Austria lacked national and geographical unity. Also as in Russia, life in Austria remained almost feudal at the beginning of the 1800s. a. Through strict censorship and the arrest and intimidation of protesters, the government sought to stem the forces of nationalism and revolution sweeping through Europe II. The Revolution of 1848 1. As you learned in Chapter 22, the principal political figure in Austria during the early 1800s was Prince Klemens von Metternich , who held the office of minister of foreign affairs from 1809 to 1848. a. Metternich believed that democratic and nationalist movements would destroy the Austrian Empire and threaten peace in Europe 2. Despite Metternich’s conservative policies, however, the revolutionary movement that had begun in France in 1848 spread to Austria the same year. a. Nationalist groups demanded freedom of speech and press, peasant relief from feudal dues, and a representative government 3. Infighting among nationalist groups and within radical factions with different political ideas enabled conservative forces to strike back. a. In Vienna the conflict between middle-class moderates who wanted to reform the political system and radical workers who wanted to overthrow it weakened the revolutionary movement
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26.5 - I. II. III. Austria-Hungary's Decline 1. In the...

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