Statistics 250 Interactive Lecture Notes and Lab Workbook Fall 2016Used in all lectures and lab sections of Stats 250 Department of Statistics University of Michigan
Statistics 250 Interactive Lecture Notes Partial Lecture Notes which you help complete ~ used in all lecture sections of Stats 250
Table of Contents Topic Page Intro 1 1: Summarizing Data 3 2: Sampling, Surveys, and Gathering Useful Data 25 3: Probability 35 4: Random Variables 45 5: Learning about a Population Proportion Part 1: Distribution for a Sample Proportion Part 2: Estimating Proportions with Confidence Part 3: Testing about a Population Proportion 69 77 87 6: Learning about the Difference in Population Proportions Part 1: Distribution for a Difference in Sample Proportions Part 2: Confidence Interval for a Difference in Population Proportions Part 3: Testing about a Difference in Population Proportions 99 103 105 7: Learning about a Population Mean Part 1: Distribution for a Sample Mean Part 2: Confidence Interval for a Population Mean Part 3: Testing about a Population Mean 109 117 123 8: Learning about a Population Mean Difference Part 1: Distribution for a Sample Mean Difference Part 2: Confidence Interval for a Population Mean Difference Part 3: Testing about a Population Mean Difference 133 137 141 9: Learning about the Difference in Population Means Part 1: Distribution for a Difference in Sample Means Part 2: Confidence Interval for a Difference in Population Means Part 3: Testing about a Difference in Population Means 145 149 157 10: ANOVA: Analysis of Variance 165 11: Relationships between Quantitative Variables: Regression 179 12: Relationships between Categorical Variables: Chi-Square 201
Lecture Notes Page 1 Stats 250 Lecture Notes Introduction Statistics...the most important science in the whole world: for upon it depends the practical application of every other science and of every art: the one science essential to all political and social administration, all education, all organization based on experience, for it only gives results of our experience." ~ Florence Nightingale, StatisticianDefinitions:Statistics are numbers measured for some purpose. Statistics is a collection of procedures and principles for gathering data and analyzing information in order to help people make decisions when faced with uncertainty. Course Goal:Learn various tools for using data to gain understanding and make sound decisions about the world around us.
Lecture Notes Page 2
Lecture Notes Page 3 Stats 250 Lecture Notes 1: Summarizing Data “ You must never tell a thing. You must illustrate it. We learn through the eye and not the noggin." ~ Will Rogers (1879 - 1935) “Simple summaries of data can tell an interesting story and are easier to digest than long lists.” So we will begin by looking at some data.