Ch.40TermSheet - Chapter 40 Term Sheet: 1. Richard Nixon...

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Chapter 40 Term Sheet: 1. Richard NixonRepublican. Inaugurated on January 20, 1969, Richard Nixon urged the divided Americans to stop arguing over Vietnam and race relations. Yet he seemed an unlikely conciliator. He resented the “liberal establishment.” Nixon was experienced in foreign affairs. He wanted to fix US foreign policy and the uproar Vietnam caused at home. Nixon’s foreign policy (the Nixon Doctrine) in relation to Vietnam called for a gradual withdrawal of troops. The US would honor its existing defense commitments but wouldn’t fight future Asian wars. Nixon sought not to end the war, but to win it by withoutmore Americans dying. In response to anti-war protests, Nixon launched his own home-front counter-offensive. On November 3, 1969, he delivered a dramatic televised appealto the great war-supporting “silent majority.” Only caused more division. Nixon widened the war in 1970 by ordering an attack on Vietnam’s officially neutral neighbor, Cambodia. This caused further division between “hawks” and “doves.” Nixon withdrew the American troops from Cambodia on June 29, 1970. Nixon thought that the Chinese-Soviet tension afforded the US an opportunity to play them against each other and to enlist the aid of both in pressuring North Vietnam into peace. Nixon ushered in an era ofdétente, or relaxed tension, with the two communist powers. Détente resulted in severalsignificant agreements and somewhat de-iced the Cold War. Set the stage for America’sexit from Vietnam. Nixon despised “judicial activism” of the Supreme Court and Chief Justice Earl Warren. Fulfilling campaign promises, President Nixon undertook to changethe Court’s philosophical complexion. He sought appointees who would strictly interpret the Constitution, cease “meddling” in social and political questions. Before the end of 1971, Nixon appointed 4/9 Court members, like Burger. Nixon supported the expansion of the welfare programs. He increased Food Stamps, Medicaid, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) (targeted single mothers of young children). Nixon created Supplemental Security Income (SSI), which gave generous benefits to the indigent aged, blind, and disabled. In 1972 he raised Social Security old-age pensions and provided for automatic increases when the cost of living rose more than 3% in any year. Ironically, this helped to fuel the inflationary fires that raged out of control later in the decade. Nixon’s generous expansion of Great Society programs and continuing economic growth reduced the nation’s poverty rate to 11% in 1973. His Philadelphia Plan of 1969 required construction-trade unions working on federal contracts in Philadelphia to establish “goals and timetables” for the hiring of black apprentices. It required thousands of employers to meet hiring quotas for minority subcontractors. It drastically altered the meaning of “affirmative action.” Opened broad employment and educational opportunities for minorities and women and increased protest. Critics said it was “reverse discrimination.” Created in 1970 of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and a companion body, the Occupational Health and Safety Administration

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Term
Summer
Professor
Ms. McMaster
Tags
History, Richard Nixon, Vietnam War, The American, The Lottery, President Nixon

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