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Chapter 5: Groups & NetworksSocial Groups-Sociologist Georg Simmel (1950) argues that w/o knowing anything about group members’ individual psychology/cultural/social context in which they’re embedded, we can make predictions about the ways people behave based solely on the # of members (‘social actors’) in that group.-This theory does not only apply to groups of ppl but also to states, countries, firms, corporations, bureaucracies官僚主义 and any # of other social forms-Simmel calls a relationship…-Dyad:between 2 ppl-Triad:between 3 ppl-Dyad, symmetry must be maintained, and Simmel argued an inherent symmetry exists cuz of the earlier stipulation of mutual dependence-It is the most intimate form of group-There r no secrets regarding actions taken-Triad holds supra-individual power (group is not dependent on any one particular member)Differences between Dyads & Triads-Secret actions are possible-The group would survive the departure of any one member-Politics is a factor in interactions-Similarities: membership is voluntaryThree basic forms of political relationsthat can evolve within a triad depending on what role the entering third party assumes1.Mediator调解人: the person who tries to resolve conflict between other 2 & is sometimes brought in for that explicit purpose (ie. marriage counselor)2.Tertius Gaudens渔翁得利者(‘the third that rejoices’): profits from disagreement of other 2 (opposite of mediator). (ie. marriage counselor earn $)3.Divide et impera (‘divide and conquer’): intentionally drives wedge between other 2 ppl (similar to Tertius Gaudens).
Small groups, Parties and Large GroupsSmall group:characterized by 4 factors1.Face-to-face interaction2.Unifocal (there is one center of attention at any given time)3.Lack of formal arrangements/roles (ie. study group)4.Equality (no particular member has greater sway than others; nobody can dissolve the group)5.No formal structure/role (refer to 4.)-One defining characteristics of small groups is equality. It is possible for a relationship to be formally symmetric相称