OUTLINE Chapter 16 America’s Gilded Age, 1870-1890 This chapter examines the changes that industrialization brought to American society during the final decades of the 19 th century. A growing industrial economy presented new challenges to those who owned businesses and to those who worked in factories. INTRODUCTION I. THE SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION II. THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE WEST III. POLITICS IN THE GILDED AGE IV. FREEDOM IN THE GILDED AGE V. LABOR AND THE REPUBLIC
INTRODUCTION STORY: In 1886 American’s celebrated the opening of the Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor. The statue was a gift to America from France, and it soon became the symbol of American freedom especially for the millions who immigrated to this country during the Gilded Age. But the Gilded Age was also a time of great tension between those who increasingly argued that freedom ought to mean more than civic rights. The great question of the age, according to Eric Foner, was “What are the social conditions that make freedom possible?’ THEMES: 1. Industrialization produced new conditions in American society that forced a rethinking of the meaning of freedom. 2. The settlement of the American West during this time period was part of the process of capitalist expansion taking place in the East. 3. The middle class and the working class had responses to the changes brought about by industrialization, but the political system of the Gilded Age could not effectively direct reform.
I. THE SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION FOCUS QUESTION: How did the United States become a mature industrial society in the decades after the Civil War? A. The Industrial Economy 1. By 1913, the United States produced one- third of the world’s industrial output 2. The 1880 census showed for the first time that a majority of the work force engaged in non-farming jobs 3. Growth of cities were vital for financing industrialization a. Great Lakes region i. Pittsburgh ii. Chicago B. The National Market 1. The railroad made possible what is sometimes called the second industrial revolution 2. The growing population formed an ever- expanding market for the mass production, mass distribution, and mass marketing of goods C. The Spirit of Innovation 1. Scientific breakthroughs poured forth from Thomas A. Edison STUDY HINT You should be able to identify how markets and innovation stimulated industrialization. ID & S Second Industrial Revolution
D. Competition and Consolidation 1. Depression plagued the economy between 1873 and 1897 2. Businesses engaged in ruthless competition 3. To avoid cutthroat competition, more and more corporations battled to control entire industries a. Between 1897 and 1904, 4,000 firms vanished into larger corporations E. Captains of Industry 1. The railroad pioneered modern techniques of business organization a. Thomas Scott of Pennsylvania Railroad 2. Andrew Carnegie worked for Scott at Pennsylvania Railroad 3. By the 1890s, Carnegie dominated the steel industry a. Vertical integration 4. Carnegie’s life reflected his desire to
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