Mus4 second half notes

Mus4 second half notes - 11/6 The Romantic Period...

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11/6 The Romantic Period: Characteristic Forms [1820 – 1908] - interests in developing music on large scale - interests in looking inward, self reflecting, solo pieces - came out of age of reason - Beethoven transitional person (late string quartet – key transitional works) - exploration of feelings – intense and extreme feelings, death, supernatural, etc after the restrain of classical period - Early Romantic Period 1820 – 1850 - expanded orchestra - expanding of timber - rubato feel – sense of stretching the tempo for expressing purposes - more wood/wind instruments, tempo rubato (speed up/slow down frequently) Hector Berlioz 1803-1869 - French composer - Program music Symphonie Fantastique - Dream of a Sabbath Night [1830] - Opium overdoes - Excessive love for someone he can’t have - Five movements - Idée fixe – fixed idea(certain melody represents a woman) - Dies Irae – Gregorian chant melody - Fugue - End of movement – witches round dance - “Program music” – tells a story Franz Schubert Die Winterreise - Die Post [1827] - Lieder – song - Failed love in winter - Piano portraying the text - Happy, joyful, hopefulness/despair, postal man bringing mail - ABAB form Die Winterreise - Der Leiermann - end of winter journey - organ grinder - same piano chord throughout (frozen) - sad, depressed Frederic Chopin - born in Poland - nationalism – dances Mazurha Polonnaise Prelude, Op. 28, No. 15 “Raindrop” - repeated note - rubato - sustain pedal on piano - ABA form
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11/8 The Turn of the Century and the Birth of Modernism Gustav Mahler 1860 – 1911 - Conduction and composer Symphony No. 1 - Slow; dragging [1888] Langsam. Schleppend. Wie en Naturlaut Immer sehr gemachlich Sehr gemachlich Vorwarts drangend - drone - long intro, suspended spaced time - sounds of nature - hunting horns - “cuckoo” motif - “high” vs. “low” art – symphonies vs folk music - large ensemble vs. small instrumental combinations Arnold Schoenberg 1874-1951 - period of Darwin, socialism, growth in technology - novels, poems, use of grammar - music - whether or not tonality is still working, classical form, more chromaticalism - rejecting traditional values - inward over external - modern art – individualism - “Modern” – brutality of the man, alteration, individuality, breaking the norm - Bach -> Mozart -> Beethoven -> Brahm -> Wagner -> Mahler - revolutionary, tried to carry on the tradition String Quartet No. 2 - Massig (movement I) [1908] - highly chromatically saturated - tonality - sonata form String Quartet No. 2 - Entruckung (movement IV) - atonality (no home base) – mysterious ascending lines, very quiet, muted strings
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Mus4 second half notes - 11/6 The Romantic Period...

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